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Updated February 14th, 2005.

Copyright ę 2001-2005 Juhani Sirkiń & Mikko Mattila.

Feedback to administrator@sumoforum.net.

Special thanks to Jelena Macan (alias Manekineko-zeki) and Endo Yuko (alias Amanogawa) for helping to remove errors from the glossary.

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

aaa-dosukoi-dosukoi(-to), chorus of sumo jinku, "to" in the end is often ignored

abarenbo, hooligan; thankfully very rare species in an ozumo audience

Abi, nickname of sekiwake Terao

abise, elimination or attempt thereof of aite's attempt of tsuri by turning one's weight towards him; part of some kimarite

abiseru, v. to inundate, to pour on, see abisetaoshi

abisetaoshi, backward force down, kimarite where the attacker will force his aite over backwards by throwing his weight into the aite from a grappling position

abunai yokozuna, yokozuna who has committed a make-koshi in the last honbasho; abunai as such means dangerous, uncertain, unreliable, unstable

Adachi-ku, district of Tokyo where Tamanoi-beya is located

agaridan, ten recesses (three at each quarter except northern side where there is but one) on the dohyo side that are used by the rikishi, gyoji, yobidashi and shimpan to mount onto the dohyo, see fumi-dawara

agari-zashiki, elevated area in heya's practice room (keikoba) on which oyakata and prospective guests sit and follow keiko

agedawara, four corner tawara of the outer square of the dohyo, see joubu-dawara

Ageishi, presumably a heya which is no longer active

agemaki, small fusa resembling knots attached to the middle of mizuhikimaku according to the cardinal points; follow the colours of fusa clockwise and lift mizuhikimaku closer to the lower edge of tsuriyane

ageru, v., to lift

aibeya, a torikumi between two do-beya in a kettei-sen or tomoe-sen situation, see heya-betsu so-atari, ichimon-betsu so-atari

ai-boshi, two or more rikishi who after hon-wari have the same number of shiroboshi, see yusho-doten

Aichi, prefecture

Aichi Kenritsu Taikukan, arena where the Nagoya Basho is held in early July; capacity 8002 spectators

Aichi-ken, see Aichi Kenritsu Taikukan

Aichi Prefectural Gymnasium, English name of the arena (Aichi Kenritsu Taikukan) where Nagoya Basho is held in early July

aikido, Japanese self-defence sport influenced by sumo, see judo

aikuchi, eccentric taisen seiseki between two particular rikishi; especially one that doesn't conform to success during their respective careers, see aikuchi ga ii, aikuchi ga warui

aikuchi ga ii, rikishi's ability to often win a particular aite, compare with aikuchi ga warui, see nigate

aikuchi ga warui, rikishi's continuous problem in winning a particular aite, compare with aikuchi ga ii, see nigate

aite, opponent in a torikumi; aite in Japanese doesn't refer solely to opponent/enemy as it is used in context of sharing something; for example hanashi-aite (the one you converse with), kekkon-aite (the one you are married to)

ai-yotsu, torikumi held between two rikishi who favour the same mawashi grip, either hidariyotsu or migiyotsu, and the grip of four hands that easily develops when both rikishi aim for and succeed in securing their favourite grips on each other's mawashi, compare with kenka-yotsu, sashite-arasoi, see yotsu-zumo

Ajigawa, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-yokozuna Asahifuji, located in Koto-ku

aka-busa, red decorative knot (fusa) that hangs above southeastern corner of dohyo symbolizing the red reacock Suzaku and summer, see ao-busa, shiro-busa, kuro-busa, Shujaku

akabusa-shita, southeastern corner of dohyo

akachan dohyo-iri, dohyo-iri where instructor keeps a small child in his lap

akachan-zumo, see naki-zumo

aka-tai, red delicious and bony perch given to the (makuuchi saiko) yusho winner in the triumph after honbasho; symbolizes luck and is therefore a common festive delicacy

Akasaka, the Imperial Palace in Tokyo, apparently also known as Chiyoda

akeni, strong red-black-green decorated bamboo box (size 30-35 * 45-50 * 80-85 cm) consisting of two interlocking parts which are strengthened with angle irons, boarded with handmade washi and lacquered with urushi; weighs about 10 kg when empty and about 30 kg when fully loaded by the tsukebito; used by the sekitori and gyoji of at least juryo-kaku rank whose shikona is painted in large letters onto the sides to hold their most important equipment (mawashi, kesho-mawashi, change clothes, towels, snacks, drink bottles, books etc.) during the jungyo; shin-juryo's first akeni is donated to him by those members of his dokisei who still are active in ozumo; nowadays akeni are produced by a single artisan in Kyoto, see shibugami, furoshiki

Ake-Taka, era during the mid-1990's dominated by the yokozuna Akebono and Takanohana II, see Rin-Ko, Tochi-Waka, Haku-Ho, Ki-Rin, Kita-Tama, jidai

aki, autumn, see fuyu, natsu, haru

Aki Basho, honbasho held at Kokugikan in September

Akita, prefecture

amano, ozumo slang for a joke, originally a Meiji era rikishi famous for his anecdotes

ama-rikishi, amateur sumotori

Amaterasu, see Ama-terasu-Oh-mi-kami

Ama-terasu-Oh-mi-kami, sun goddess, the highest god of shinto to whom is dedicated the Ise-jingu shrine where all the yokozuna and riji visit annually

ama-yokozuna, very successful amateur senshu, an amateur sumo "yokozuna"

amazumo, amateur sumo

Amenominakanushi no kami, one of three gods to whom a rikishi shows his appreciation after winning a torikumi, see Takamimusubi no kami, Kamimusubi no kami, tegatana o kiru

amiuchi, the fisherman's throw, kimarite where the attacker will throw his aite behind him by pulling the aite's arm with both hands while twisting backwards; the technique resembles the traditional way of casting a Japanese fishing net; hence the name

ani-deshi, "elder brother", do-beya who has come to heya earlier, rikishi of higher rank, at least of sandanme, compare with otooto-deshi

anko, see anko-gata

anko-gata, rikishi of buxom build with high percentage of body fat, compare with soppu-gata

annai-jo, side entrance (of Ryogoku Kokugikan)

ao, colour that is not easily understood by a westerner, usually either green or blue but might even be grey, see ao-busa which might erroneously be called blue in some context

ao-busa, green decorative knot (fusa) that hangs above northeastern corner of dohyo symbolizing the green dragon Seiryu and spring, see aka-busa, shiro-busa, kuro-busa

aobusa-shita, northeastern corner of dohyo

Aomori, prefecture

appa, ozumo slang for wife (of your own)

aragushi

Araiso, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki ichimon and is lead by moto-komusubi Futagodake, located in Kunitachi-shi

Araiwa, historic todori of Osaka-Zumo without apparent counterpart in Nihon Sumo Kyokai, compare with Fujishima, Inagawa

Arakawa, see Arakida

Arakawa-ku, district of Tokyo where Kiriyama-beya and Musashigawa-beya are located

Arakida, locality where the clay from banks of Arakawa river in Saitama prefecture that was traditionally used to construct the dohyo at honbasho arenas was dug, see also Ibaraki where (Tsukuba Gakuen area) the clay used nowadays comes from

arashi, storm

ara-shio, coarse marine salt, see kiyome-jiro, shio-kago

Arashio, heya which belongs to Tokitsukaze ichimon, established in the summer 2002 and lead by moto-komusubi Ohyutaka, located in Chuo-ku

arasoi, contest for yusho; list of rikishi leading honbasho and their respective kuroboshi so far

aratame, expression used in banzuke to indicate a shikona change, e.g. Fictinohana (old shikona) aratame Imaginoumi (new shikona), see kaimei

areru, v., to storm, to get angry

Areru Haru Basho, "stormy basho", term sometimes used about Haru Basho in Osaka indicating the startling results often taking place there

Areru Osaka Basho, "stormy basho", term sometimes used about Haru Basho in Osaka indicating the startling results often taking place there

Arima, heya which is no longer active

Asagaya, locality, connection to sumo unknown as of this writing

asageiko, morning keiko

Asahi, brewery whose expedient bottles are used by the yobidashi to revise the dohyo

Asahiyama, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-ozeki Daiyu, located in Koto-ku; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo

asajiki, see masu-seki

Asakayama, myoseki which belongs to Taiho-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

ashi, foot

ashi-barai, lift of aite's foot from the dohyo with a grip on his ham used in few kimarite, see watashi

ashihakobi, way of moving on the dohyo characteristic to rikishi in an effort to keep the center of gravity as low as possible

ashika, sea lion, nickname of moto-yokozuna Asahifuji Seiya

ashikuse, waza based on tripping an aite such as susoharai and sotogake; term has a slight connotation of curiosity, also treading with one's feet bent 45 degrees outwards (?), see ashi-waza, suri-ashi

ashitori, leg pick, kimarite, similar to a technique of the same name found in both amateur and professional wrestling in which the attacker takes his aite down by grabbing and lifting aite's leg with both hands

ashi-waza, collective term for waza applied to aite's legs

atama, head, see zu

atama wo tsukeru, v., to suppress aite's forward movement or attempt thereof by pressing one's head into his chest, compare with kuisagari

atari, rikishi's ability to uphold his will of winning and initiative during a torikumi; also the impact at the tachi-ai; hard atari is very impressive sight in ozumo.

ato-tatemitsu, rear vertical part of mawashi; in amateur sumo it's presumably against rules to grab it resulting in disqualification and kuroboshi, see yoko-mitsu, mae-mitsu, mae-tatemitsu

Atsuta, shrine where the three treasures (sword, jewel & mirror) given by the sun goddess to the first Emperor are said to be kept

a-un no kokyu, success of the rikishi in synchronizing their breathing rhythms before the beginning of the torikumi, bordering on telepathy

azukari, relatively usual historical practice to announce torikumi unresolved in a situation where it was impossible to know with any certainty which rikishi had won the torikumi; nowadays a torinaoshi will be arranged in such a situation, several times if needed

azuki, small red peas

azuma, see higashi

Azumazeki, heya which belongs to Takasago-ichimon and is lead by moto-sekiwake Takamiyama, located in Sumida-ku

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

baiten, salespoints in Kokugikan, see chaya

ban, sumobout, see torikumi

Bankazu mo torisusumimashitaru tokoro, kataya <shikona 1>, konata <shikona 2>, kono sumo ichiban nite, honjitsu no uchidome, tategyoji's announcement to the audience that the torikumi about to begin is the last one of the tournament day, see next term

Bankazu mo torisusumimashitaru tokoro, kataya <shikona 1>, konata <shikona 2>, kono sumo ichiban nite, senshuraku (ni gozarimasu), tategyoji's announcement to the audience that the torikumi about to begin is the last one of the honbasho; ni gozarimasu is sometimes omitted, see previous term

banzai, lit. "Long live!", traditionally banzai yell is performed three times by the supporters of yusho winning rikishi after the honbasho when the rikishi poses for the media

banzen, perfection; apparently impeccability of a sumo technique

banzuke, an official calligraphy which determines the ranking of the rikishi, nowadays written by makuuchi-kaku Shikimori Toshihiro, published every two months usually on Monday thirteen days prior to the beginning of honbasho, see ita-banzuke, ebanzuke, Nen-Matsu-Nen-Shi

banzuke-gai, "outsider from the list", rikishi whose shikona is not yet included in the banzuke, see maezumo, shindeshi, makushita tsukedashi, kyakuseki, besseki

banzuke-hensei, creation of a new banzuke

banzuke hensei iinkai, see banzuke hensei kaigi

banzuke hensei kaigi, banzuke deciding kyokaicommittee (and its meetings)

banzuke hensei yakuinkai, see banzuke hensei kaigi

banzukehyo, see banzuke

bariki, "horse power", ozumo slang for alcohol

basho, long jungyo, often used interchangeably but erroneously with honbasho

basho-buton, sekitori's zabuton on which a hikae-rikishi sits while waiting for his torikumi to take place, brought to its place by sekitori's tsukebito

basho-iri, the arrival of rikishi, especially that of sekitori, to the honbasho arena

basho teate, sort of a fee paid to deshi every other month during a honbasho

basyo, another transcribing form of basho

Beikoku, United States of America

bento, lunchbox which along with its contents is included at least to the price of masu-seki tickets

besseki, temporary rikishi rank of the early 1930s, related to the upheaval of rebellious movement lead by sekiwake Tenryu, see Osaka Sumo Kyokai

bessuseki, see besseki

betsuseki, see besseki

beya, spelling form of the word heya, used when the word is preceded by another word, for instance the name of heya (heya, Futagoyama-beya)

bikkuri bikutori, surprise victory in a torikumi

binbou-gami, "god of poverty", two highest ranking rikishi in the juryo division, compare with maegashira hitto

bintsuke, fragrant camomile oil used for dressing rikishis' hair, see tokoyama, oh-ichoh-mage, chonmage, ginkgo

bofu, see boke

bojin, former word for rikishi that isn't used any more

boke, Mongolian form of grappling where victory is achieved by using different types of throwing and kicking techniques, resembles sumo in some ways, Kyokushuzan was a boke champion before entering ozumo, see ssirum

bonen-kai, festive season of the turn of the year, see Nen-Matsu-Nen-Shi

bosozoku, Japanese hobby of trimming up motorcycles, came more into public awareness when Chiyotaikai-zeki was promoted to ozeki, this hobby also has somewhat notorious reputation

box seki, box at Kokugikan, constituted by four Western style chairs and a round table, located behind massu-zeki seats looking from the dohyo, see isu-seki, tachi-seki, tamari-seki, jiyu-seki, sunakaburi

bu, tenth of a sun, ca. 3 mm, see shaku, rin, jyoo

buchi, an expression which strengthens the following word

buchikamashi, hard collision with aite at tachiai

bucho, amateur coach

bucho, oyakata acting at high level in kyokai, elected for fixed period at a time having specific areas of responsibility, compare with riji

buh, see boke

Bungei-Shunju, one of the biggest monthlies in Japan

Bunkyo-ku, district of Tokyo where Kabutoyama-beya is located

buraku, pariah class of Japanese society of about one to three million people, developed of practisioners of despised occupations like butchers and washers of corpses during Tokugawa Shogunate and their successors; still seems to be a sort of taboo amongst regular Japanese

busa, see fusa

bushido, see sumodo

butsudan, Buddhist home altar, see kamidana

butsudan-gaeshi, rare term for the kimarite of yobimodoshi

butsukari-geiko, a form a practise where the attacking rikishi charges towards the defending rikishi who tries to stop the attacker on his tracks before he is able to push him over the tawara; the losing rikishi leaves the dohyo and takes his place at the far end of the queue and the winner becomes the defending rikishi or in case winner was the defending rikishi the first rikishi of the queue replaces the lost attacking rikishi and charges towards the defender, see mune wo dasu, mune wo kariru, mune wo kasu

Byakko, see shiro-busa

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

chahan

-chan, suffix added to the names of children, pets and close friends, see -sama, -san, -zeki, -kun, -oyakata

chanko, meal of chankonabe; also former word for the chanko-cho

chanko-ban, often relatively experienced and low ranking rikishi responsible for preparing chanko often under the guidance of okamisan, see ryokan

chanko-cho, the most experienced and skilled chanko-ban, a kind of chief cook of heya, see ryokan, okamisan

chanko-hako, box used on jungyo catered for in shifts by groups of young rikishi where chanko cauldron and other equipment related to preparation of chanko were kept

chankonabe, traditional sumo dish cooked in a large pot eaten with rice and beer; exact composition varies according to heya traditions and seasons, see chanko

chanko-ya, chanko restaurant often owned by a former rikishi, compare with ryokan, izakaya

chaya, teahouses in Kokugikan's north side part of which are owned by okamisan whose staff caters for most of the masu-seki seats

Chiba, prefecture

Chiba, native city of Matsugane-, Naruto-, Onomatsu- and Sadogatake-beya

chibiko-zumo, apparently synonym of kodomo-zumo

Chiganoura, heya which is no longer active

Chiganoura, myoseki which belongs to Kasugano-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

chiho-basho, honbasho held outside Tokyo, see Haru Basho, Nagoya Basho, Kyushu Basho

chiisana dai-yokuzuna, "small great yokozuna", designation of moto-yokozuna Tochigiyama Moriya (172 cm, 103 kg)

chikara ga hairu, fatigue during torikumi

chikara-gami, "power paper", paper used by the sekitori to cover their mouths when spitting chikara-mizu out, see mizu-oke

chikara-kaju, see chikara-mizu

chikara-kurabe, sumo style in which relatively large-sized rikishi compete favouring yotsu-zumo, literally a contest of strength

chikara-mizu, "power water", ladleful of water offered to the sekitori preparing for his torikumi by the winner of the previous torikumi or, in case the sekitori in his tozai side lost his own torikumi, by the sekitori that is about to participate in the next torikumi after him; spat out before entering the dohyo, see chikara-gami, mizu-oke, mizu-iri

chikara-mizu (w)o tsukeru, term for the whole ritual of taking chikara-mizu into the mouth and spitting it out while covering mouth with chikara-gami and wiping the lips with it

chiri-chozu, clapping the hands together during the shikiri and rubbing them; comes from times when the wrestlers cleared the earth they were to wrestle on with their hands

chiri-nabe, historically one of two different main variations of chankonabe, see soppu-daki, mizu-taki

chiri-o-kiru

Chitosegawa, heya which is no longer active

Chiyoda, see Akasaka

chongake, pulling heel hook, kimarite in which the attacker will hook his heel behind the defender's heel from the inside (left foot to left foot or right foot to right). As he pulls that leg towards him, he will grab the defender's arm on the same side and twist him sideways or backwards into the clay; rare kimarite executed only be  real leg technicians

chonmage, hair-do of the deshi that sekitori wear as well except for official occasions torikumi included, see oh-ichoh-mage, tokoyama, bintsuke

chontachi, when rikishi doesn't place both hands on shikirisen before tachi-ai

chouzu

chuban, the five middle days of honbasho, see tournament days, joban, shuban, nakabi

chubansen, see chuban

chubon, middleman arranging yaocho, see gachinko, mukiryoku, chusha

chu-butsukari, some kind of practice

chuumon-zumou,  sumo that doesn't turn out to be standard sumo; for example henka against a foe who is "asking for it" with his actions in the bout (like too much forward leaning sumo at the tachi-ai)

chuken, senshu who fights second in the three member amateur sumo team, see taisho, senpo

Chuo-ku, district of Tokyo where Arashio-beya is located

chusha, inquiry for arrangement of yaocho; also rikishi that has agreed to lose his torikumi, see gachinko, chubon, mukiryoku

chuumoku-no-ichiban, the most anticipated makuuchi torikumi of a honbasho day, literally "deserving most attention"

cyber rikishi, active sumo enthusiast in the Internet often with a shikona of his or her own and often participates different ozumo related games during honbasho

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

daigaku, university (not a particular one)

daigappei, jungyo in which all rikishi of at least jonidan rank participate

dai-kan-jo, ceremony held twice annually during Edo-jidai(1603 - 1867) in which Sumo Kaisho paid salaries to oyakata and rikishi using masu as a measuring unit

dai-kinboshi, maegashira's kinboshi against dai-yokozuna

daikon, mild flavoured white radish often used for preparing chankonabe

daimyo, historical regional warlord, see shogun

Dai-Nippon Sumo Kyokai, see Nihon Sumo Kyokai

daisho, collective term for katana and waziyashi, the two swords of a samurai

Dai-Sumo Kansen, annual publication of phenomena close to ozumo like chankonabe restaurants etc.

daito, collective term for swords with length of over two shaku like katana and tachi, see shoto, waziyashi, tanto

Daito-ku, district of Tokyo where Isegahama- and Takasago-beya are located

dai-yokozuna, yokozuna who most often holds the rank of higashi sei-yokozuna; in some contexts the current higashi yokozuna; the best rikishi of his generation, see meijin-yokozuna

daizu, soyabean

damari, see tamari

dan, the more prestigious class of the two overall classes of amateur sumo, divided into subclasses, 1.dan, 2.dan,…, 10.dan which is the highest rank, compare with kyu

danpatsu, short hair, see danpatsu-shiki

danpatsu-shiki, emotional ceremony taking place about half a year after sekitori has withdrawn from active ozumo career, in which his male relatives, representatives of koenkai, fellow sekitori and finally his shisho use golden scissors to cut his oh-ichoh-mage, see tomebasami, haigyo, intai

Dantaisen

dashi, pushing of aite off the dohyo

dashinage, throwing aite without body contact with a pulling move with a grip on mawashi, see nage

datemochi, see tachimochi

datsuzei, tax evasion; in the context of ozumo especially the scandal which hindered Futagoyama-beya in the middle of the 1990's

Dazaifu, old name for the island of Kyushu

Dazaifu Temmangu, shrine in Fukuoka prefecture dedicated to the god of scholarship Sugawara-no-Michizane believed to be descendant to Sukune

deashi, rikishi's forward motion on the dohyo, especially the first step forcing aite backwards; also rikishi's ability to maintain his balance despite of forward leaning position; danger of becoming prone to henka and therefore hatakikomi, sokubiotoshi, hikiotoshi, okuridashi etc. techniques, see suri-ashi

de-ashi-baya, quick forward movement of the feet, essential for quality oshi attacks

de-bana

degeiko, training at a heya other than rikishi's own, see keiko, ichimon-geiko, rengogeiko

dekata, functionary of a chaya, literally an usher

dekichatta kekkon, marriage caused by an "accident"; happens also to rikishi sometimes

Dekiyama, heya which is no longer active

Dekiyama, myoseki which belongs to Dewanoumi-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

denkoban, scoreboard

denshamichi-sumo, "railway sumo", rikishi's ability to push his aite backwards and out of the dohyo straight from the tachiai; term was often used in context of ex-ozeki Dejima

dento, traditions, see kakushiki

deru, v., to advance, to move forward

deshi, rikishi student, young rikishi competing in lower divisions; also a collective term for all rikishi no matter what age who are not sekitori, ie. they compete in makushita division or lower (jonokuchi division being the lowest possible); sometimes term deshi is used for expressing the coach-athlete or teacher-student relationship of a rikishi and his oyakata, in this case deshi can be a rikishi at any rank, compare with shindeshi, toriteki, wakaishu

detai

dezuiri, old expression for yokozuna dohyo-iri, not used nowadays, see gata, shiranui-gata, unryu-gata, kanreki yokozuna dezuiri

Dewanoumi, one of the five ichimon

Dewanoumi, heya which belongs to Dewanoumi-ichimon and is led by moto-sekiwake Washuyama, located in Sumida-ku

diet, the parliament of Japan, see Shyugiin

(division), kyokai divides the approximately 800 rikishi in ozumo to six divisions which are, starting from the lowest one,  jonokuchi, jonidan, sandanme, makushita, juryo and makuuchi, see maezumo

dou-age, carrying and swinging up of a rikishi about to be promoted to the rank of ozeki or yokozuna on the shoulders of his stablemates once the official news of promotion has arrived in the heya

do-beya, rikishi from the same heya, see kyodai-deshi

doha, edge of the ring

dohyo, when referring to actual tournament dohyo; about 30 tons of weight, 540*540 cm of dimensions and 60 cm of height, made by the yobidashi out of special clay that has some sand in it, a sacred arena under tsuriyane bordered by half-embedded hyo on which the torikumi are fought; sometimes mistaken for the brink of the dohyo circle, the tawara; see Arakawa, Arakida, toku-dawara, kengamine, fumi-dawara, joubu-dawara, kado-dawara, soto-dawara, janome, dohyo matsuri, nijuudohyo

dohyo-biraki, ceremony resembling dohyo-matsuri in which a gyoji blesses the dohyo of a new heya and a yokozuna performs his dohyo-iri

dohyo-damari, eastern and western dohyo flanks where rikishi wait for their torikumi to start

dohyo-iri, presentation ceremony of juryo and makuuchi division sekitori, both tozai sides separately; at the presence of the emperor dohyo-iri is performed differently, see gozengakari; also dohyo-iri performed by active yokozuna at the beginning of every tournament day to purify the dohyo, see dezuiri, unryu-gata, shiranui-gata

dohyo jinsei, life on the dohyo; career as a rikishi

dohyo-jo, see dohyo

dohyo-matsuri, since Natsu Basho 2000 publicly open ceremony at 10 AM on Saturday the day before shonichi where the other tategyoji, one makuuchi-kaku and one juryo-kaku sanctify the dohyo; a square hole of about 15 cm depth is dug at the center of the dohyo and filled with washed rice, nuts of Torreya nucifera tree, salt, calmar, alga and chestnuts (shizumemono)

dohyo mawashi, mawashi used in torikumi, see shimekomi, compare with keiko mawashi, kesho-mawashi

dohyo no oni, literally "demon of the dohyo", nickname for Wakanohana I for his magnificent fighting spirit and tenacity on the dohyo

dohyo saho, conduct on the dohyo

dohyougiwa, see kengamine

dojo, historically a coaching ring set up by a still active rikishi that eventually separated to a heya of its own, see nimai-kansatsu

dokisei, rikishi who began their ozumo careers in the same honbasho; literally a classmate, see akeni

dokkoi-sho, yell of appreciation from the audience when yokozuna stamps down during his dohyo-iri ceremony

Dokuhaku, moto-yokozuna Wakanohana Masaru's jiden from the year 2000

donsu, damask, old term for kesho-mawashi

doro-gi, clothes rikishi wear when they have their belt (obi?) on

dosanko, Hokkaidonese, originally word dosanko meant a breed of horse from Hokkaido

dosukoi, sumo exclamation, see aaa-dosukoi-dosukoi-to

dotage

dotai, situation where both rikishi fall or step out of the dohyo practically speaking at the same time and the winner of the torikumi is impossible to be determined, hence a torinaoshi is ordered

dou, a mark used in banzuke to indicate repetitition of a ranking; literally "same"

douki, rikishi belonging to the same dokisei

doumon, rikishi from the same ichimon

doutai, see dotai

doutai tori-naoshi, see torinaoshi

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

ebanzuke, unofficial illustrated banzuke published by e.g. newspapers

ebisuko ga tsuyoi, rikishi with a cavernous appetite

eboshi, black headwear of the gyoji and shinto priests; literally raven hat

Edagawa, heya which is no longer active

Edagawa, myoseki which belongs to Tokitsukaze-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo

Edo, ancient name of Tokyo

Edo-jidai, historical era of 1603 - 1867

Edogawa-ku, district of Tokyo where Isenoumi-, Kagamiyama-, Nakamura-, Oitekaze-, Takadagawa- and Takashima-beya are located

edokko, true Tokyoite

Ehime, prefecture

Ekoin, Buddhist temple in the neighbourhood of the original Kokugikan built in 1909; honbashos took place on its area during 1808-1906, see Josetsukan

engishiki, wooden figures of sumo wrestlers, thousand years old

enka, traditional Japanese music style

erebeta-rikishi, "elevator rikishi" who tends to achieve kachi-koshi among those generally weaker than him only to get promoted higher to a rank where he tends to succumb to make-koshi among those generally stronger than him; effect is more pronounced when there are division changes involved

ESU, European Sumo Union

Ezo, historical name for Hokkaido

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

fan ni shitsurei, "disrespectful to fans", expression used for rikishi's shunned methods of trying to win a torikumi; often used for a henka committed by a high ranking rikishi

fuchima

fugu, delicious but poisonous fish; it is forbidden to use fugu as an ingredient in chankonabe but it is nevertheless used sometimes due to its amazingly delicious taste

fu-iri, "not entering", lack of audience

Fujigane, heya which is no longer active

Fujigane, myoseki which belongs to Kagamiyama-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Fujisaki, heya which is no longer active

Fujisawa, one of the basho

Fujishima, heya which is no longer active; merged with Futagoyama-beya; the original heya of Hanada yokozuna brothers

Fujishima, myoseki which belongs to Futagoyama-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo that later changed into Oshima

fujomake, unravelment of mawashi during torikumi and the resulting kuroboshi, see isamiashi, koshikudake, morodashi

Fukagawa, area in Koto-ku where Tomioka Hachimangu is located

Fukui, prefecture

fuku-kaicho, vice chairman (of koenkai or Yokozuna shingi iinkai), see kaicho, iincho

Fukuoka, city on the island of Kyushu, host city of honbasho in November

Fukuoka, prefecture

Fukuoka International Center, English name of the arena of November's honbasho

Fukuoka Kokusai Sentaa, Japanese name of the arena of November's honbasho

Fukuoka Kokusai Sentaa, arena where the Kyushu Basho is held in November; capacity 8891 spectators

Fukushima, prefecture

fukutategyoji, the less prestigious gyoji of the two highest ranked gyoji (tategyoji), rank established in 1951; recognised from the costume's purple-white shibusa knots, see Shikimori Inosuke, Kimura Shonosuke

fukutateyobidashi, second (and sometimes also third) highest ranking yobidashi

Fumareta mugi wa tsuyoku naru, moto-ozeki Kirishima Kazuhiro's 228-page jiden from 1996, translated into French; literally a proverb "wheat that gets stepped on grows stronger"

fumidashi, rear step out, one of five situations in which a rikishi can win a torikumi without actually initiating a kimarite; situation where the defending rikishi accidentally steps back over the edge without the attacker initiating any kind of technique; most likely to happen when the defender is getting ready to launch a counterattack from that position; recorded outside official listing of winning techniques and introduced with the 2001 winning technique list expansion, see isamiashi, okuriashi, tsukite, tsukihiza, koshikudake

fumi-dawara, ten tawara of the agaridan on the dohyo edge

fumikomi, efficient and stable forward motion at the tachiai, see buchikamashi, deashi

fumikoshi, former and unofficial expression for fumidashi

fumu, stamping the foot on the ground in shiko

Funabashi-shi, district of Chiba where Matsugane-beya is located

funbari, rikishi's ability to hold his ground on the dohyo despite his aite's attempts to move him

funbari ga ii, rikishi with good funbari

funbari ga warui, rikishi with bad funbari

funbaru, v., to hold one's ground against aite's attempts

fundoshi, traditional Japanese underwear; an unofficial expression for mawashi; also worn under kesho-mawashi

fundoshi-katsugi, mockery but in a well-meaning way; expression for the heya's lowest ranking rikishi who in addition to his own also takes care of his do-beyas' mawashi; sometimes the term is used for general word for all the rikishi in two (?) lowest divisions

funori, alga whose extract is used to stiffen sekitori's sagari

fure, ancient term for the yobidashi, see nanori

fure-daiko, the procedure of yobidashi where they play special taiko rhytms while walking around the dohyo 3 times after dohyo-matsuri and then out onto the streets to announce and advertise the beginning of the honbasho; also the special taiko-rhytms see yose-daiko, taiko, yagura

furigana, way of writing small hiragana or occasionally katakana syllable marks next to difficult kanji characters so that also the ones who don't yet know kanji well enough can understand the text; with proper nouns furigana is used to make sure that the name is interpreted correctly by people who master kanji since even they can't always be sure how the kanji of a name is exactly read

Furitsukaikan, see Osaka Furitsu Taiikukan

Furiwake, heya which is no longer active

Furiwake, myoseki which belongs to Takasago-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

furo, see ofuro

furoba, bathroom into which rikishi go after keiko in the order of their rank to soak in bath, see ofuro

furoshiki, a big square-shaped cloth that at one time was substitute for akeni, senshuraku excluded

furumai-nabe

fusa, decorative knots of different colours, length of 230 cm and weight of 25 kg, hanging from the corners of tsuriyane according to intercardinal points; symbolising four seasons and four gods who protect the inviolability of the dohyo; until 1952 tsuriyane was held up by the shihon-bashira; grammatically correct form of the word is fusa which changes to busa when a prefix is added, see aka-busa, ao-busa, kuro-busa, shiro-busa, mizuhikimaku, agemaki

fusen, cancelled torikumi due to absence of the other rikishi, see fusenpai, fusensho

fusempai, see fusenpai

fusenhai, see fusenpai

fusenpai, kuroboshi in torikumi due to inability to show up usually because of an injury, see fusensho, shutsujo

fusensho, shiroboshi in torikumi due to aite's injury (usually) in previous day's torikumi and hence his inability to show up to wrestle

Futabayama, heya (or dojo?) which is no longer active; also legendary yokozuna

Futa factor, in some people's opinion unfair advantage to rikishi who have many strong and high-ranking do-beya and hence benefit from heya-betsu so-atari rule for not having to fight against each other with an exception of kettei-sen and tomoe-sen; on the other hand heya-betsu so-atari also has the opposite effect (jiriki); named after the strongest heya of the 1990's, Futagoyama (yokozuna Takanohana and Wakanohana, ozeki Takanonami and often other sanyaku ranking rikishi), see torikumi hensei yoryo, Magaki effect

Futagoyama, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-ozeki Takanohana, located in Edogawa-ku, see Fujishima

futaketa, double digit (at least ten shiroboshi or kuroboshi) record in honbasho, essential for example when granting sansho awards

futokoro-ga-fukai, rikishi with deep armpits, long reach, long limbs and good flexibility, it is harder than on average to move or throw rikishi with these characteristics

futon, pad spread on tatami

futsuka-me, second day of honbasho, see tournament days

fuyu, winter, see aki, haru, natsu

Fuyu Basho, see Hatsu Basho

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

gabburi-yori, pushing aite backwards with one's torso (basically stomach) while both rikishi have a grip on each other's mawashi

gachinko, rikishi who refuses to take part in preorchestrated torikumi, see yaocho, chubon, mukiryoku, chusha

gaijin, foreign, non-Japanese, see nihonjin

gaikokujin, more polite form of gaijin

gairaigo, loanwords in Japanese language

gaito, cloak worn over kimono

gake, see kake

gakusei rikishi, student rikishi; apparently one of university level

gakusei yokozuna, "amateur yokozuna", university champion of which many (most?) move onto ozumo and are allowed to debut at the rank of makushita tsukedashi

gaman, patience (to wait for aite's mistake), self control, stamina

gaman suru, v. to be patient, see gaman

gambare, see gambatte

gambatte, encouragement shouts from the audience

ganbarimasu, "I will do my best.", rikishi's almost automatic persuasion in an interview how he will do his best in the coming torikumi

ganbaru, ability to give one's best even in the most adverse situations

gappuri-yotsu, see ai-yotsu

gasshohineri, clasped hand twist down, kimarite which can be done from a one hand inside, one hand outside grip but would more commonly be used when the attacker has achieved a double inside grip. From this position, the attacker would clasp his hands behind the defender's back and twist him down and over. Gasshohineri was also called tokkurinage but that technique name is now used for a variation that has become one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

Gasshuku, practice camp

gata, two different styles of yokozuna dohyo-iri ceremony, see shiranui-gata, unryu-gata, kanreki yokozuna dezuiri

gedan, lower body

gekirei-kai, feast arranged by a heya to celebrate new deshi

gekkyu, basic allowance of rikishi that is usually a relatively small part of his total income

gen, expression most closely translatable to luck; believing in not changing routines in preparing for the torikumi unless there's a good reason to attempt changing one's fortunes, see gen o katsugu, gen-naoshi

gen ga ii, gen is good

gen ga warui, gen is bad

gen o katsugu, keeping gen on one's side during a winning streak by for example ignoring shaving, compare with gen-naoshi

Genbu, see kuro-busa

genkan, porch where outdoor shoes are changed to indoor shoes

genki, rikishi in good shape, see tsuyoi, compare with yowai

genki ja nai, not genki

gen-naoshi, reversing adverse gen to advantageous one by for example changing the colour of the mawashi, praying to kami-sama, shaving thoroughly, changing the sagari, washing old bintsuke off thoroughly and ultimately by changing one's shikona, compare with gen o katsugu

geta, Japanese wooden sandals worn by the toriteki, see tabi, zori, compare with setta

Gifu, prefecture

gimboshi, see ginboshi

ginboshi, "silver star", officially meaningless shiroboshi by a rikishi ranked below komusubi over an ozeki in a honbasho torikumi, see kinboshi

ginkgo, maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba) whose leaf sekitoris' oh-ichoh-mage hairstyle resembles, see chonmage, tokoyama, bintsuke

gino-sho, technique award, the most prestigious sansho award bestowed on senshuraku to the most technically able rikishi who managed most clearly to impose his aite to utilize fighting styles most suitable for him to counteract; often not bestowed at all (once in five (?) consecutive honbasho), see kanto-sho, shukun-sho

gishiki, ceremony, ritual

go-aisatsu, rijicho's welcoming speech to audience on shonichi

gobo, burdock, ingredient of chankonabe (?)

godanme, historic division most closely corresponding to current jonokuchi

Gofuku, heya in Kyushu that is no longer active

Gogatsu Basho, May honbasho, see Natsu Basho

go-hei, rare term for the five zigzagging stripes hanging from tsuna symbolizing lightnings; possibly same word as the next one, see shide

gohei, a shinto symbol erected onto the dohyo after keiko has finished; a wooden stick with white paper or cloth shaped like go-hei wrapped around

gohiiki, patronage between a rikishi and his supporter

gohkai, exciting, energetic and pleasurable way to audience to fight sumo

Go-Ichi Kumi

gomen fuda, historical (during Edo-jidai?) permission from the (religious?) authorities to arrange a sumo tournament

gomen koumuru, lit. receiving permission, see gomen fuda

gonin nuki, form of hana-zumo where a rikishi attempts to wrestle five opponents simultaneously

go no sen, phrase describing a perfect tachiai; roughly means to take delayed action but yet getting the initiative; it was said that legendary yokozuna Futabayama had perfect go no sen, he never committed matta and let his foe start the bout but was nevetheless able to take initiative from the start of the clash and lead the bout

Goshoguruma, heya which is no longer active

Goshonoura, heya which is no longer active

goshugi, unofficial donations to sekitori from his supporters (koenkai, tomonokai, tanimachi) which make their exact income impossible to know precisely

gotchan, see gottsuan

gotohchi-zumo, local rikishi, a crowd favourite, see otoko

gottsuan, "thank you", expression of sumo slang

gozengakari, exceptional dohyo-iri of the makuuchi division while a member or members of the Imperial family are present in which the rikishi gather onto the dohyo in rows and queues facing the Imperial stand instead of gathering around the tawara in order to not turn their backs to the Emperor

gumbai, meticulously handicrafted, possibly several generations old wooden fan used by the gyoji to mark out the winner of the torikumi, the rank of the gyoji can be deduced from his gumbai; resembles the fan of the ancient warlords, see Kimura, Shikimori

gumbai-uchiwa, see gumbai

gumbai wo kaesu, turning the gumbai to show the rikishi that the preparation time is over and torikumi is to be started without delay

Gumma, see Gunma

gunbai, see gumbai

gunbaidōri, lit. according to the gumbai, decision of the shimpan gathered in kyougi that gyoji's judgement was the correct one, see torinaoshi, sashi-chigae, mono-ii

Gunma, prefecture

guru-guru, agile rikishi's attempt to derive benefit from his greater speed relative to his aite by attacking him at unusual angles in an effort to gain an advantageous mawashi or leg grip

gyakuten, shiroboshi of a rikishi who was (very) close to losing the torikumi at some point

gyaku-tottari, see sakatottari

gyoen, see jingu

gyoji, referee who officiates the torikumi; belongs to a heya; maximum number of the gyoji is 45; they are divided into eight ranks (tategyoji, sanyaku-kaku, makuuchi-kaku, juryo-kaku, makushita-kaku, sandanme-kaku, jonidan-kaku, jonokuchi-kaku), see Kimura, Shikimori

gyoji-beya, locker room of the gyoji and the yobidashi (at Kokugikan), previously a heya specialized in training gyoji

gyoji-matta, break during torikumi due to bad bleeding, loosened mawashi or any other event that needs urgent attention and treatment

gyoji sashi-chigae, see sashi-chigae

gyoji-tamari, gyoji waiting for his torikumi on the tamari

gyouji, see gyoji

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

haafu, "half", when referred to person it means half-Japanese for example like in case of ex-makuuchi Sentoryu

hachimaki, cloth wrapped around the head; used for instance in the first tsunauchi-shiki of shin-yokozuna

Hachiman, god of war

Hachimangu, shrine where shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo (1148-99) arranged torikumi

Hadaka no Konishiki, moto-ozeki Konishiki Yasokichi's jiden from 1998

hadashi, barefoot, see geta

hage-san, bald man, most balding rikishi retire before making oh-ichoh-mage or chonmage becomes impossible

hai, (pai), loss in a torikumi, compare with sho, see kuroboshi

haigyo, withdrawal from kyokai after retirement from active sumo; expression is disappearing, see intai, jun-toshiyori, ichidai toshiyori, danpatsu-shiki

haigyo todoke, report delivered to kyokai about the conclusion of a rikishi's active career, see haigyo, intai

haisui no jin, proverd meaning "A precipice in front, a wolf behind"

hakama, wide pants made out of foldknit, see haori, kimono

hakataobi, belt of kimono, see obi

hakesaki, front part of oh-ichoh-mage shaped like a ginkgo leaf

haki-otoshi, lit. sweeping drop, dropping aite onto dohyo with a sweeping motion

hakite, touching dohyo with hand during torikumi, followed by kuroboshi, see fumikoshi

Hakkaku, heya which belongs to Takasago-ichimon and is lead by moto-yokozuna Hokutoumi, located in Sumida-ku

hakke-yoi, gyoji's encouragement yell at rikishi who don't show enough initiative to execute kimarite, see mizu-iri, nokotta

hakobiashi, "duck" walk done with bent knees while leaning to a mate walking in front of oneself to strengthen thighs and improve balance

hakozen, lunches apportioned by Sumo Kaisho to the rikishi of three top divisions until 1897

Hakubutsukan, see Kuramae Kokugikan(?)

Haku-ho, era during the 1960's dominated by yokozuna Taiho and Kashiwado, see Rin-Ko, Tochi-Waka, Ake-Taka, Kita-Tama, Ki-Rin, jidai

Hamakaze, heya which is no longer active

Hamakaze, myoseki which belongs to Nishonoseki-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

hamon, blade of sword

hampa-zumo, lit. incomplete sumo

Hanakago, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-sekiwake Daijuyama, located in Sumida-ku

hanamichi, "flowerpath", path leading from shitaku-beya to dohyo, see higashi hanamichi, nishi hanamichi

hanare, collective term for various pushing techniques, compare with kumi

Hanaregoma, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-ozeki Kaiketsu, located in Suginami-ku

hanarete sumo wo toru, sumo where bodies of the rikishi are apart, not in contact, see oshi-zumo, compare with kunde sumo wo toru

hanareru, v. to maintain distance, see hanarete sumo wo toru

hanashite, some kind of practice

hanayome, bride, see tsuno kakushi

hana-zumo, sumo which doesn't have any effect on banzuke rankings, ie. any sumo tournament or happening honbasho excluded, especially sumo performed in humorous or showlike manner, see shokkiri, gonin nuki

hane, older expression for tsuppari?

hane-daiko, request for the spectators to leave the arena and come back the next day (naturally senshuraku and one-day happenings excluded); performed by playing yagura-daiko after the torikumi are finished, see ten-den bara-bara, yose-daiko, Sumida

hanko, unique seal or stamp of heraldically high standard used for making documents official and often as a guarantee that tegata by heya's sekitori are genuine; every heya has a unique hanko, see shikishi

hanmi, position that is highly reflexive for many rikishi and very convenient for defensive sumo; rikishi extends his other leg far behind the other one being bent in front, makes offensive sumo difficult to perform, not very liked style by kyokai's officials

hanmi-shikiri, way of crouching to tachiai so that the other leg is slightly further away from the shikiri-sen; amongst others moto-yokozuna Tochinishiki used to do this, usually considered a habit of technically brilliant rikishi, compare with hanmi

hansoku, illegal moves and occurances in torikumi, kuroboshi is immediate if any of these occur; punches with a clinched fist, bending aite's fingers to unnatural positions, intentional pulling of hair, striking aite's both ears with open hands at the same time, biting, poking the eyes intentionally, grapping the vertical part of mawashi through sagari, strangling (compare with nodo-wa), kicking above the knees and unraveling of mawashi, see fujomake, morodashi

hansokumake, loss by hansoku

haori, Japanese knee-length coat; in most heya at least sandanme rank is required for the right to wear haori, in some heya makushita rank is required, see hakama, kimono

haori-hakama, combination of haori and hakama

hara, stomach

Harajuku, district of Tokyo where Meiji-jingu is located; shin-yokozuna performs traditionally his first dohyo-iri there

haran, chaos; unpredictable situation concerning overall results especially during the last days of honbasho

haridashi, nowadays (since 1995) unofficial attribute which is possibly added to no lower than yaku-rikishi's rank when there are at least two rikishi above him at the same rank, his tozai rank depending on the amount of higher ranked haridashi rikishi; for instance third yokozuna (haridashi higashi yokozuna) and at the same time in banzuke a third ozeki (haridashi nishi ozeki); at one time haridashi could also mean rikishi who didn't have a rank in banzuke but who were allowed to participate in honbasho back then (for example some huge men with abnormalities were sometimes allowed to participate since they aroused spectators' curiosity; they didn't have a chance against trained real rikishi though), see sei, compare with kyakuseki

harimanage, backward belt throw, kimarite, sacrifice technique usually done as a last ditch throw at the edge. The attacker will throw his opponent behind him by reaching over the opponent's shoulder to grab the mawashi from behind and then pull him past his own body while twisting into him. The name comes from the image of a weak wave hitting a rock and then drifting past it.

harite, open handed strikes aimed at aite's face, see nodo-wa, tsuppari

haru, spring, see aki, fuyu, natsu

Haru Basho, honbasho held in Osaka in March

hashira, post, pillar, see shihon-bashira

hassou-tobi, rare jump upwards at the tachiai by a rikishi attempting to surprise his forward leaning charging aite, when the move works it is a real crowd-pleaser and can be a spectacular way of winning; the originator of the term into sumo was moto-yokozuna Wakanohana I, originates from the story of Yoshitsune from Genji-Heishi war (1185) where according to legend Yoshitsune jumped from one enemy boat to another juking enemies around, it was said he could jump over eight boats (hassou no fune), nowadays Hayateumi has started to use this jump as part of his sumo repertoire

Hatachiyama, heya which belongs to Dewanoumi-ichimon and is lead by moto-ozeki Hokutenyu, located in Sumida-ku

hataki, pressing or slapping aite downwards towards the dohyo, see hataku

hatakikomi, slap down, kimarite, one of sumo's most common techniques and often seen at the tachiai or initial charge. The attacker will shift away as his opponent charges in with his head too low. As he shifts, he will slap the opponent's shoulder, back or arm with one or both hands, forcing him to touch the surface of the ring with his hand or hands.

hataku, v. press downwards, see hataki

hatsu, num. first

Hatsu Basho, honbasho in Kokugikan in January

hatsu-dohyo, first ozumo torikumi in which rikishi is fighting for the first time or gyoji is refereeing for the first time

hatsu-kao-awase, first mutual (makuuchi) torikumi between two rikishi

hatsu-yusho, rikishi's first (makuuchi saiko) yusho

hazu, armpit, crucial in hazu-oshi where palm is placed flat against foe's chest while all fingers except the thumb are in the armpit fo the foe

hazuoshi, push aimed at aite's armpit, usually targeted upwards in order to lift aite's centre of gravity

hazu-shi

hebon-shiki, Hepburn style romanisation of Japanese; the most usual of few alternative ones

Heisei, Emperor Akihito's neng˘ (January 7th, 1989 -)

henka, avoiding aite's attack by dodging to the side, often done at the tachiai in pursuit of hatakikomi win; many consider resorting to henka being disgraceful and not good sumo, compare with inashi

henka-waza, term for henka used for emphasizing the nature of henka as a technique of its own although henka itself is never an official kimarite

heya, ozumo stable, one of presently 54 which are divided into five ichimon, see also beya

heya-betsu so-atari, rule preventing torikumi between rikishi from the same heya, kettei-sen and tomoe-sen excluded, compare with ichimon-betsu so-atari, kazoku-betsu so-atari, kojin-betsu so-atari, aibeya

Heya-Betsu Zen Sumo-Jin Mei-kan, lit. Complete Directory of Sumo Men, special edition of over 100 pages published every January and July by magazine Sutera listing detailed information of every person in kakkai with every heya separately listed

heyagashira, heya's highest ranked (active) rikishi

heya-mochi no oyakata, oyakata who owns his heya, shisho, compare with heya-tsuki no oyakata

heya-tsuki no oyakata, oyakata who doesn't own heya but belongs to a heya owned by some other oyakata (i.e. shisho), compare with heya-mochi no oyakata

hidari, left, see migi

hidari-gata, eastern team of sechie-zumo, see migi-gata, tozai

hidarikiki, rikishi who prefers left-sided grips, compare with migikiki

hidari-sashi, compare with migi-sashi

hidari-uwate, left hand inside, right hand outside grip, compare with migi-uwate

hidariyotsu, rikishis' grips on each others' mawashi so that left hands are inside, compare with migiyotsu; see uwate, shitate, morozashi, ai-yotsu, kenka-yotsu, tokui-yotsu

Hidenoyama, heya which is no longer active

Hidenoyama, myoseki which belongs to Sadogatake-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

higashi, east, eastern, the more prestigious side of banzuke, compare with nishi, see tozai, kita, minami

higashi hanamichi, path to dohyo from the eastern side of shitaku-beya, see nishi hanamichi

higashi-kata, (nominally) eastern side of dohyo

higashi-kata shimpan, shimpan sitting on the eastern side of the dohyo

higashi no kachi, victory of the rikishi on the eastern side

higashi yokozuna, highest ranked rikishi in banzuke provided that there are yokozuna in banzuke, see nishi yokozuna, sei

hiiki, favourite

hiji, elbow

hikae-buton, see basho-buton

hikae-rikishi, rikishi at the side of the dohyo waiting for his torikumi to take place, see basho-buton

hiki, pulling aite down; related to some kimarite

hikiotoshi, hand pull down, kimarite, a common sumo technique, similar to hatakikomi, in which the attacker pulls the opponent down while backing away by pulling on his arm, shoulder or the front of his mawashi.

hikitsuke, pulling aite usually with two-handed grip on the front part of the aite's mawashi (mae-mitsu) towards one's own body so that aite has to give up his forward leaning position and therefore becomes vulnerable to yori

hikiwake, prolonged torikumi that becomes unresolved because of the tiredness of the rikishi, see azukari, itamiwake

hikiwaza, collective term for techniques where aite is pulled backwards

hikkake, arm grabbing force out, kimarite in which the attacker will drive his opponent out of the ring by grabbing his arm with both hands, often in response to a tsuki/oshi (pushing/thrusting) attack and pull him past and to the attacker's rear while moving backwards and to the side.

hiku, v. pull, back up, see hikitsuke

hineri, twisting aite to his back or side

hineri-te, twelve twisting techniques of the original 48 kimarite (shijuu-hatte), see kake-waza, nage-waza, sori-te

hineru, v. twist, see hineri

hinkaku, honourableness, respect for seniority, dignity, strength of character etc.; especially yokozuna is expected to have these qualities

hinomaru, the flag of Japan

hinoshita kaizan, term that was used in late Edo-jidai and early Meiji era about rikishi who were equal of yokozuna or literally holding the rank of yokozuna

hipparikomu, letting deliberately aite place his arm or arms below one's own arms so that one can perform kannuki or hataki

hira-doshiyori, toshiyori without his own special assignment in kyokai, see iin, sanyo, riji, shunin, rijicho

hiragana, one of two Japanese syllabic scripts, see katakana

hira-gumo, "low spider", the other one of the old shikinihairu styles which are no longer defined separately; in hira-gumo rikishi's goal is to lower his body as low as possible in order to face his aite at tachiai from low posture aiming the initial crash upwards hence making his aite's centre of gravity rise; moto-yokozuna Terukuni and Maenoyama used hira-gumo at their time, nowadays only Asanowaka does it occasionally, compare with koma-inu, see hanmi-shikiri

Hirai-shi

hiramaku, another term for (makuuchi division) maegashira, sometimes used as a synonym for makuuchi

hiramaku dai-ichi-go, first maegashira to reach kachi-koshi during honbasho

Hirari

hira-sho

Hiroshima, prefecture

hirou, low rank

hirune, few hour afternoon nap after chanko providing optimal circumstances for rikishi's weight gain; not an ozumo specific word as such

hisashiburi, especially high ranking rikishi's return to action after injury, also spectators' expectations towards him; lit. long time, greeting to somebody you haven't seen in a while

Hitachi-Ume, era during the early 1900's dominated by the yokozuna Hitachiyama and Umegatani II, see Rin-Ko, Tochi-Waka, Haku-Ho, Ki-Rin, Kita-Tama, jidai

hitatare, ancient ceremonial court robe

hitorizumo, part of rice planting ceremony practised at least from the 14th century onwards where a rikishi named Ichirikizan (name apparently varies according to the locality) has three torikumi under gyoji's supervision against the imagined rice plant spirit (ine no seirei) which he ultimately loses in order to appease the spirits and secure the crops, also an idiom in Japan with "hitori-zumo o toru" meaning literally "to do sumo on your own", idiom refers to a situation where one is struggling by oneself trying to make things better but seemlingly with no clear positive end in sight

hiza, knee, often injured bodypart in sumo

hogan bi-iki, supporting the "underdog" in torikumi, compassion felt towards the aite of the better rikishi and hoping for his shiroboshi; literally refers to Yoshitsune, founder of Kamakura shogunate

Hokkaido, northernmost of the four main islands of Japan; also a prefecture, see dosanko

honbasho, nowadays six annual grand tournaments on which the rankings of the rikishi are based on and which begin on the second Sunday of every odd month, Nagoya Basho in July excluded (which begins on the first Sunday of the month), see shonichi, nakabi, senshuraku, joban, chuban, shuban, tournament days, chiho-basho

honmyo, rikishi's real, legal name, compare with shikona

honne, special characteristics of ozumo in comparison to amateur sumo, see tatemae

hono-zumo, ceremonial torikumi held in a temple or shrine

honpo

honseki(-ti), person's official prefecture but not necessarily the prefecture the person was actually born in, see shusshin-chi, koseki

Honshu, largest of Japan's four main islands

hon-wari, fifteen regular honbasho torikumi of the sekitori (or seven of deshi), compare with kettei-sen, tomoe-sen

honzumo

Horyuji, temple which was used as a model for the first Kokugikan's roof structure

hoshi-jako, dried sardines

hoshitori, see hoshitorihyo

hoshitorihyo, table drawn of rikishi participating in the honbasho and on which every tournament day's kekka is drawn as honbasho proceeds; losing rikishi gets kuroboshi, winning rikishi gets shiroboshi, see kinboshi, shirosankaku, itami-wake, yasumi

hoshokin, prize money

hote, "greatest hand", term for the highest ranked rikishi before the rank of ozeki was introduced

hotewaki, next ranking down from hote; at one time rikishi rank equivalent to present sekiwake

hyo, Chinese reading of the kanji which means tawara in Japanese

Hyogo, prefecture

hyojunshiki, standard way of romanizing Japanese language, slightly modified form of Hepburn system

hyosatsu, name tag hung next to front door

hyoushi-gi, yobidashi's wooden sticks whose sound output is tuned by whittling the tips; yobidashi hit sticks together to draw spectators' attention

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

Ibaraki, prefecture northeast of Tokyo where clay suitable for building a dohyo can be found, see Arakawa, Arakida, Tsukuba Gakuen

ibatte iru, adj. (irritatingly) arrogant, arrogance shown by a rikishi towards his aite and even the audience

ichiban-daiko, nowadays abandoned custom of introducing the shin-deshi with playing of a yagura-daiko, see niban-daiko

ichiban shusse, rikishi candidates in the first round presentation of maezumo, compare with niban shusse and sanban shusse; they wear borrowed kesho-mawashi for this presentation, the only time they are allowed to do so before being promoted to a sekitori rank

ichidai toshiyori, personal and lifelong toshiyori-kabu outside regular myoseki that can be rarely privileged to an exceptionally successful yokozuna (dai-yokozuna) whose shikona is also the name of the ichidai-toshiyori; lost in its occupant's death or his 65th birthday, see teinen, Kitanoumi, Taiho, Takanohana

Ichigatsu Basho, January honbasho, see Hatsu Basho

ichimon, one of five groups (Nishonoseki(-Futagoyama) Ichimon, Dewanoumi Ichimon, Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo, Tokitsukaze Ichimon & Takasago Ichimon) of heya to which all but one heya belong

ichimon-betsu so-atari, rule abolished in 1966 (?) that prevented torikumi, kettei-sen and tomoe-sen excluded, between rikishi who belonged to separate heya belonging to the same ichimon, see heya-betsu so-atari, kojin-betsu so-atari

ichimon-geiko, cooperative keiko held by the heya (or part of them) belonging to the same ichimon, see rengo-geiko

ichinin-mae, sekitori, "mature rikishi" in segregation from rikishi of lower rank who are considered apprentices and therefore ineligible to sekitori privileges, e.g. kiyome-jiro

Ichirikizan, see hitorizumo

ichizoku, clan

ichoh-no-ki, see ginkgo

iin, member of shimpan-iin, shimpan (?)

iin-taigu, status where one is treated as iin

iincho, chairman of Yokozuna shingi-iinkai

ijime, bullying of the deshi in heya to teach them their place in hierarchy

ika, edible octopus, see takoyaki

Ikazuchi, heya which is no longer active

Ikazuchi, myoseki which belongs to Tatsunami-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

iki-jibiki, "walking dictionary"

ikioi, literally "momentum", success of a rikishi in his career on his way to kachi-koshi and kakuage; expression is often used especially of rikishi on their way to the highest ranks of ozeki and yokozuna

iki-tai, "living body", rikishi controlling the torikumi and about to crush his aite under him while both rikishi fall simultaneously; compare with shini-tai, see kabai-te

iki wo awaseru, aspiration of two rikishi to synchronize their breathing during shikkiri

ikkaisen, first round of those jungyo tournaments that are held in a cup format, see nikaisen, sankaisen, jun-jun-kessho, jun-kessho, kessho-sen

i-kyu, test inspecting the knowledge of Japanese language that is planned to be demanded from gaijin entering ozumo

Imizugawa, heya which is no longer active

Inagawa, heya which is no longer active

Inagawa, myoseki which belongs to Dewanoumi-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo that later changed into Ajigawa, see oyakata

inaka, countryside where majority of the rikishi used to hail from

inashi, averting aite's attack by (ducking and) moving diagonally backwards, compare with henka

inasu, v. to duck

ine no seirei, see hitorizumo

Inosuke, heya which is no longer active

inro, lacquered and distinguished cartridge of medical supplies cleaved to obi of tategyoji and sanyaku-kaku by a silk cord

intai, rikishi's retirement from his active career while staying in kyokai as an occupant of (jun-)toshiyori-kabu, see haigyo, ichidai toshiyori, jun-toshiyori, dai-yokozuna, danpatsu-shiki

Intai kinen sumo kogyo, see danpatsu-shiki

intai kogyo, exhibition torikumi held at danpatsu-shiki

intai-zumo, see intai kogyo

International Sumo Federation, global amateur sumo federation, same as WASF?

ippai, honbasho score with only one kuroboshi (14-1 for sekitori, 6-1 for toriteki)

ipponzeoi, kimarite, classic seio-nage where rikishi wraps his arm around foe's arm and lifts him up while pivoting and throws him over his shoulder, very rare in sumo due to heavy weights, necessity to avoid touching down with one's knee before foe hits the clay and the lack of cloth to grab

irekae-sen, unofficial term for torikumi where the participants are rikishi of different divisions, usually one of higher division who has had a bad honbasho and one of lower division who has been winning; this way torikumi hensei kaigi can partly evaluate the need for division changes for these rikishi although the final total win-loss result is always the deciding factor; sometimes term is used about torikumi where a young, lower ranked rikishi wins more experienced, higher ranked rikishi and earns his place on top

Irimoya, see Kiritsuma, Shinmei

irimoya-zukuri

Irumagawa, heya which belongs to Dewanoumi-ichimon and is lead by moto-sekiwake Tochitsukasa, located in Yono-shi

isamiashi, forward step out, one of five situations in which a rikishi can win a torikumi without actually initiating a kimarite; situation where the attacking rikishi accidentally steps too far forward and out of the ring before winning the torikumi, giving the victory to his aite; isamiashi is recorded outside official listing of winning techniques: the English translation was changed from "inadvertent step out" with the introduction of fumidashi (rear step out) in the 2001 winning technique list expansion, see koshikudake, okuriashi, tsukite, tsukihiza

Isegahama, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-ozeki Kiyokuni, located in Daito-ku

Isenoumi, heya which belongs to Tokitsukaze-ichimon and is lead by moto-sekiwake Fujinokawa, located in Edogawa-ku

ISF, see International Sumo Federation

Ishikawa, prefecture

issho-kemmei, giving one's everything in a torikumi

isshou-kenmei, see issho-kemmei

isu-seki, individual seats on the loft furthest from the dohyo divided into A, B and C seats according to their prices, see jiyu-seki, tachi-seki, tamari-seki, box seki, masu-seki, sunakaburi

ita-banzuke, large wooden banzuke attached to yagura outside the honbasho venue

itami-wake, undetermined torikumi, rare situation in which one or both rikishi get injured after the torikumi has started and are unable to continue; apparently neither rikishi are considered to have won or lost, compare with fusenpai, fusensho, azukari, hikiwake, torinaoshi

itsuka-me, fifth day of honbasho, see tournament days

Iwate, prefecture

Iwatomo, myoseki which belongs to Kasugano-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo

izakaya, pub, bar, compare with ryokan, chanko-ya

izori, backwards body drop, kimarite in which the attacker will dive under his aite's charge so the defender is leaning on top and over him. The attacker will then grab behind either one or both knees, or the front of the defender's mawashi, and use his lower body/back to lift him up and over backwards.

Izumo, area nowadays belonging to Shimane prefecture where gods Takemikazuchi and Takeminakata had their mythical torikumi over the possession of the islands of Japan

Izutsu, heya which belongs to Tokitsukaze-ichimon and is lead by moto-sekiwake Sakahoko, located in Sumida-ku

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

jakku shiraku furansu ky˘wakoku dait˘ry˘-hai, challenge trophy weighing 20 kg donated by French president Jacques Chirac in 2000 given to the winner of makuuchi saiko yusho

janome, 25 cm wide area surrounding tawara, composed of fine-grained sand and swept regularly by yobidashi so that the mark indicating rikishi's foot stepping out of the dohyo is easily detected if stepping out has occured in the heat of action; around 1897-1931 janome was also surrounded by a tawara of its own, see nijuudohyo

janome no suna, see janome

jibun no sumou, one's own sumo; ability to force aite to wrestle on conditions favourable to oneself

jidai, lit. era, battle between two superior rikishi for the authority in whole ozumo, see Rin-Ko, Haku-ho, Tochi-Waka, Ake-Taka, Kita-Tama, Ki-Rin

jiden, autobiography, for example Fumareta mugi wa tsuyoku naru, Shinbou no rireki-sho, Dokuhaku

jigyo bucho, bucho responsible for kyokai's economy

jikan, lit. time, see jikan mae

jikan desu, te wo tsuite, "It's time. Lower your hands.", see jikan ippai

jikan-gakari shimpan, shimpan who takes care of timing, see tokei-gakari shimpan

jikan ippai, gyoji's order to rikishi to begin torikumi without further delay, see gumbai wo kaesu, ryote o orosu

jikan mae, mutual understanding between rikishi to begin tachiai, compare with matta

jikkyou, live (commentary)

Jimmaku, heya which is no longer active

Jimmaku, myoseki which belongs to Hakkaku-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo

jingu, shrine, for example Meiji-jingu where shin-yokozuna perform their first dohyo-iri, see Harajuku

jinja, see jingu

jinku, see sumo jinku

jinku-kai

Jinmaku, see Jimmaku

jinshin

jiriki, "on his own", rikishi who is pursuing yusho and is one shiroboshi behind his do-beya can't achieve yusho by jiriki since he can't fight against his do-beya because of heya-betsu so-atari rule and hence must wait for some other heya's rikishi to cause kuroboshi to his do-beya so that winning records would become even and a chance to kettei-sen would become possible, see kojin-betsu so-atari

jishin wa doryoku, rikishi's exceptionally strong self confidence, see tame

jiyu-seki, cheapest seats at the honbasho venue, see isu-seki, tachi-seki, tamari-seki, box seki, masu-seki, sunakaburi

joban, first five tournament days of honbasho, see tournament days, chuban, shuban, shonichi

jobansen, see joban

jodan, upper torso; shoulders, neck and head

joi goban, last five makushita division torikumi after juryo division dohyo-iri, see kiyome-jiro

joijin, about twenty highest ranked rikishi; yaku-rikishi and maegashira-joi who fight against each other in honbasho

joijin keiko

jomen, see shomen

jonai hoso, audience announcements

jonidan, second lowest division of the six professional ozumo divisions, 245 rikishi

jonidan-kaku, gyoji officiating torikumi between two jonidan rikishi or a torikumi between a jonidan and a jonokuchi ranked rikishi

jonokuchi, lowest ranked division of the six professional ozumo divisions, about 70 rikishi

jonokuchi-kaku, gyoji who officiates torikumi between two jonokuchi ranked rikishi

joran-zumo, sumo performed at the presence of shogun, compare with tenran-zumo

joubu-dawara, four hyo rows forming the dohyo's outer border, see toku-dawara, kengamine, fumi-dawara, kado-dawara, soto-dawara, janome

judo, Japanese martial arts influenced by sumo, see aikido

Juichigatsu Basho, honbasho in November, see Kyushu Basho

juichinichi-me, eleventh day of honbasho, see tournament days

jumaime, official term for juryo division; presumably originally meant the ten highest makushita division ranks that were separated to its own division between makushita and makuuchi in 1888

jungyo, tours to different areas of Japan; gives an opportunity for large crowds to get familiar with different aspects of ozumo; results of tournaments held in jungyo don't affect on banzuke; jungyo is naturally held between honbasho; also unofficial tours abroad are considered jungyo, compare with koen, see basho

jungyo bucho, bucho responsible for jungyo

jun-hon-basho, term for Nagoya and Fukuoka basho before those were accepted as official honbasho

juninichi-me, twelfth day of honbasho, see tournament days

jun-jun-kessho, fourth round (quarterfinal) of those jungyo tournaments that are held in a cup format when there are still eight sekitori left in the tournament, see ikkaisen, nikaisen, sankaisen, jun-kessho, kessho-sen

jun-kessho, fifth round (semifinal) of those jungyo tournaments that are held in a cup format when there are still four sekitori left in the tournament, see ikkaisen, nikaisen, sankaisen, jun-jun-kessho, kessho-sen

jun-oyakata

jun-toshiyori, ten two-year waiting rights for the retired sekitori during which former sekitori has to arrange for himself a toshiyori-kabu or resign from kyokai's membership

jun-yusho, rikishi who become(s) second in honbasho

juryo, "ten golden coins", second highest ranked division of the six professional ozumo divisions and which was separated from makushita division in 1888 Haru Basho, 26 rikishi, see sekitori, jumaime, maegashira

juryo hitto, two highest ranked juryo (higashi juryo mai-me 1 and nishi juryo mai-me 1), compare with maegashira hitto, binbou-gami

juryo-kaku, gyoji who officiates torikumi between two juryo ranked rikishi or between a juryo and a makushita ranked rikishi

jusannichi-me, thirteenth day of honbasho, see tournament days

juu-rensho, winning streak of ten consecutive torikumi

juyokka-me, fourteenth day of honbasho, see tournament days

jyoo, ten shaku (ca. 3 m); diameter of a dohyo is 1.5 jyoo, see sun, bu, rin

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

kabai-te, hand of the winning rikishi with which he is allowed to touch dohyo to soften the blow on his aite without losing the torikumi, compare with tsukite, see next term

kabai-te, controversial and rare possibility of the winning rikishi to touch the dohyo with some other body part except the soles of his feet or to touch the area beyond the tawara in an effort to avoid his aite's injury without losing the torikumi, see previous term

kabu, see toshiyori-kabu

Kabutoyama, heya which is no longer active

kachiage, unsettling aite's appropriately forwarding leaning and balanced stance by landing powerful thrusts with bent arms onto his chin and upper torso

kachiageru, v. to push, see kachiage

kachi-doku, toriteki's shiroboshi in his (luckily gotten) eight honwari torikumi which affects positively on his ranking in the next banzuke, compare with make-doku

kachi-koshi, majority of wins in honbasho, at least eight shiroboshi in fifteen torikumi or four shiroboshi in seven torikumi; guarantees that there won't be kakusage (demotion) but almost always there will be kakuage (promotion), compare with make-koshi

kachi-make, lit. win-loss, ozumo's accentuated quality as a sport while neglecting the other (ritual, religious etc.) qualities, see shobu

kachinanori, proclamation of victory

kachinokori, rikishi who has won the third or fourth last torikumi of his division and who will not leave his dohyo side (higashi-kata or nishi-kata) and go back to the shitaku-beya but waits in case that the all remaining rikishi on his tozai side lose their torikumi in which case there would be no one to offer chikara-mizu to the last rikishi of the said tozai side

kadoban, ozeki who has committed make-koshi in the previous honbasho and who will drop to the last sekiwake position if he is to repeat the make-koshi in the coming or on-going honbasho; such rikishi can regain his ozeki rank if he in the immediately next honbasho at the sekiwake rank can manage at least ten shiroboshi; see the kosho seido rule which was commonly observed in kadoban cases before its abolishment in 2004

kadoban wo mukaeru, facing the kadoban

kado-dawara, 28 tawara of which joubu-dawara is formed

kaeri, prefix added to the rank of a rikishi signifying that he is returning to a division from which he was dropped earlier; for example kaeri-juryo Fictinoyama can be a rikishi who has fought in the juryo division and dropped lower to the makushita division but risen back up to juryo; if he keeps his position in the juryo, he isn't called kaeri any more in the next honbasho, compare with shin, see sai

kaeri-ozeki, rikishi who fights for the first time at the rank of ozeki having earlier lost the said rank, compare with shin-ozeki

kaeri-sanyaku, rikishi returning to a sanyaku rank (in practice to the rank of komusubi or less usually sekiwake) who has earlier held either rank but dropped down to the rank of maegashira or even juryo; term is commonly used for a rikishi who hasn't been part of sanyaku for a relatively long time

Kagamiyama, heya which belongs to Tokitsukaze-ichimon and is lead by moto-sekiwake Tagaryu, located in Edogawa-ku; originally todori of Osaka-Zumo

Kagawa, prefecture

Kagoshima, prefecture

kagura, sacred dances of the miko at the shinto shrines

kaicho, chairman (for example one of koenkai or Yokozuna shingi iinkai), see fuku-kaicho, iincho

kaigai koen, overseas koen

kaimei, change of shikona, see aratame

kaina, arm

kainahineri, two-handed arm twist down, kimarite in which the attacker will lock up one of the defender's arms with both arms and, turning into his aite, twist him over and into the clay.

Kaisei-Gumi, ozumo organization lead by rikishi named Takasago Uragoro in Nagoya in 1873-1878 which separated itself from the Tokyo organization of that time in order to establish a more modern association governed by clear rules

kaitenzushi, conveyor belt sushi where sushi plates travel on a conveyor belt around and around and customers pick whatever they want and pay according to amount of plates and the colour of plates at the end of the sushi eating session

kakato, heel

kake, wrapping foot or leg around aite's foot or leg

kakenage, hooking inner thigh throw, kimarite in which the attacker will hook one leg inside the defender's legs and turn away from him. As he raises the hooked leg up and back, he will wrap his foot around the defender's ankle or lower calf. By driving that attacking leg up and backwards, he will force the defender up and over into the clay.

kake-waza, twelve foot throwing techniques of the original 48 kimarite (shijuu-hatte), see hineri-te, nage-waza, sori-te

kakezori, hooking backwards body drop, kimarite in which the attacker will have his head placed under one of the defender's arms while taking an inside grip on the opposite side of his aite's mawashi. Taking a deep step from the same side as his gripping hand, he will attempt to either twist the defender over that leg or hook the defender's closest leg. At the same time, he will drive his head into the defender's side to force him over backwards.

kaki, persimon

kakkai, ozumo community, see sumo-kai

kaku, term which sometimes refers to sumo, comes from Chinese kanji for sumo

kakuage, promotion of rank in banzuke, see kachi-koshi

kakujitsu, adj. final; promotion of ozeki to yokozuna are often practically decided during the last day(s) of honbasho and later only nominally confirmed finally

kaku-kai, see kakkai

kakusage, demotion of rank in banzuke, see make-koshi

kakushiki, formalities, see dento

kakutougi, combat sport

kamaete, gyoji's exhortation to the rikishi stepping onto the dohyo to begin preparation for the torikumi

Kamakari, family name of sekiwake Takatoriki before he was adopted to Taiho's family when he married Taiho's daughter and became Naya

kamban, see kanban

kamidana, shinto home altar most usually fabricated of hinoki tree, see butsudan

Kamimusubi no kami, one of three gods to whom a rikishi shows his appreciation after winning a torikumi, see Takamimusubi no kami, Amenominakanushi no kami, tegatana o kiru

kami-sama, spirit of a deceased person which is believed to strengthen anyone who remembers the spirit with prayers, see gen-naoshi

Kami-Tsuru-gun, district of Yamanashi where Hanakago-beya is located

kamishimo, semi-official costume of the gyoji used until 1910 that imitated costume of the samurai

kamisori, bare area shaved onto the top of the head of a rikishi with bushy hair to help tokoyama in preparing the chonmage or oh-ichoh-mage

kamiyui, preparation of rikishi's coiffure, see tokoyama, oh-ichoh-mage, chonmage, ginkgo

kamon, family crest, see montsuki

kan, old Japanese measure of weight, about 3.75 kg

Kanagawa, prefecture

Kanayama Taikukan, arena without air-conditioning in Nagoya where the hot July honbasho was held until 1965, see Aichi Kenritsu Taikukan

kanban, physically somehow exceptional rikishi who were taken into tournaments (and promoted to the rank of ozeki) to lure audience during the Edo-jidai; usually they were of little athletic ability with few exceptions like Dategaseki who developed into yokozuna Tanikaze; kanban literally means a signboard

kancho, see Sumo Hakubutsukan Kancho

kanji, Chinese writing characters used in Japan

kanji, supervisor (?), see Kyoshujo (?)

kanjikai, lit. board of governors, sponsoring agreement of a heya lasting a honbasho

kanjin-moto, person responsible of a jungyo

kanjin-ozumo, later writing form of kanjin-zumo since 1761 when the word ozumo (grand sumo, professional sumo) was used for the first time

kanjin-zumo, form of sumo in seventeenth to nineteenth century whose profits were used to support the sumotori and to build and restore shrines, bridges, temples etc.

kankei-sha, participants

kannuki, breaking aite's morozashi or tying aite's arms lured to their position by a hipparikomu by forcefully squeezing the arms around aite's upper arms to force aite's grip to go off; especially used by large rikishi; often prone to cause injuries to the aite

kannushi, shinto priest; gyoji often act in a way reminiscent of priests but they aren't real priests

kanreki yokozuna dezuiri, dohyo-iri ceremony performed by a yokozuna having his sixtieth birthday in which he uses the same gata he used to use while he was active and wears a red tsuna; only a handful of these ceremonies have taken place (Tachiyama 1937, Tochigiyama 1952, Tsunenohana 1956, Tochinishiki 1985, Wakanohana I 1988, Taiho 2000 & Kitanofuji 2002), see shiranui-gata, unryu-gata

Kansatsu Iincho, oyakata in charge of kyokai's inspective committee, same as iincho (?)

kantei-ryu, see sumo moji

kanto-sho, fighting spirit award, sansho award bestowed on senshuraku to the most tenacious rikishi who managed most clearly to make the most out of his abilities, see shukun-sho, gino-sho

kaobure, large pieces of washi paper onto which the makuuchi torikumi of the next day are written

kaobure gonjoo, reading aloud the kaobure while waiting for the first makuuchi division torikumi to begin at about 4.10 - 4.25 PM local time; reader is either tategyoji or sanyaku-kaku who lays the kaobure on a fan, reads them aloud in a singing tone and hands them over one by one to a young yobidashi who shows them to each cardinal point; sometimes kaobure gonjoo is skipped for unknown reasons; during kaobure gonjoo kikaku are often showed in the TV broadcast

kao wo tateru, v. to save face

Karafuto, island belonging nowadays to Russia (Sakhalin) where yokozuna Taiho was born in 1940 from Ukrainian father and Japanese mother

kara-uchiwa, see gumbai

kariginu, ancient fighting costume of the rikishi of more than thousand years ago

kari-kabu, rented toshiyori-kabu; during the lease the renter aims to collect the money to either buy the rented kabu or some other kabu about to become available for the right price, see jun-toshiyori

kashira, see wakaimonogashira

kashiwade, clapping hands in prayer to attract the attention of the gods

Kashiwado, heya which is no longer active

Kashiwa-shi, suburb of Chiba where Isegahama-beya is located

Kasshoku-no Dangan, "brown bullet", nickname of sekiwake Fusanishiki Katsuhiko, a small but tenacious rikishi who was specialized in oshi-zumo

Kasugano, heya which belongs to Dewanoumi-ichimon and is lead by moto-yokozuna Tochinoumi, located in Sumida-ku

Kasugayama, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-maegashira (mai-me 1) Kasugafuji, located in Kawasaki-ku

kata, (dohyo's) side according to cardinal directions

kata, shoulder

katafutori, rikishi whose body fat is unusually solid, for example ozeki Tochiazuma, compare with Miyabiyama and Minatofuji whose bodies are softer than average

katai, adj. stiff, rigid

katakana, one of two Japanese syllabic scripts, see hiragana

katame ga aita

katana, samurai's long sword, see tachimochi, tachi, waziyashi, taisho, daisho, daito

Kataonami, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-sekiwake Tamanofuji, located in Sumida-ku

katasukashi, under-shoulder swing down, kimarite in which the attacker will force his aite into the clay by placing one hand on the aite's shoulder blade from the inside and one from the outside, pulling him down and forward while backing away.

kata-teppo, teppo with only one hand

kata-yaocho, form of yaocho gratuitous to the winning rikishi since someone else has bought the torikumi to him without his consent

katsu, cutlet some rikishi eat to get gen to work for them since "katsu" means not only cutlet but also the verb to "win", see tonkatsu

Katsunoura, heya which is no longer active

Katsunoura, myoseki which belongs to Isenoumi-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

katsuo, mackerel-like fish, common chankonabe ingredient

Katsushika-ku, district of Tokyo where Tatsutagawa-beya is located

Kawaguchi-shi, district of Saitama where Minato-beya is located

kawaigareru, v. to coach, see kawaigaru

kawaigaru, coaching young deshi and supporting his mental growth using methods which might seem quite ineffective to a layman

kawaru, similar to henka; used if henka is done in midst of a torikumi

Kawasaki-ku, district of Kawasaki where Kasugayama-beya is located

Kawayu Sumo Kinenkan, museum located in Kawayu exhibiting the legendary career of moto-yokozuna Taiho; kept by his brother, see Sobetsu Kitanoumi Kinenkan

kawazugake, hooking backward counter throw, spectacular kimarite done from a grappling position; the attacker will hook his aite's closest leg from the inside and take him over backwards by pulling that hooked leg forward and across his own body. A sacrifice technique.

kazoe, Japanese way of defining person's age by counting full calendar years since his or her birth

kazoku-betsu so-atari, rule preventing torikumi between rikishi from the same family, kettei-sen and tomoe-sen excluded, compare with ichimon-betsu so-atari, heya-betsu so-atari, kojin-betsu so-atari

ke, v. to kick

Kehaya, see Sukune

keigo, respective way of speaking when addressing someone of higher rank

keihitsu, tategyoji's exhortation to the audience to quieten before yokozuna is about to begin his dohyo-iri ceremony

keiko, practice, see shiko, teppo-oshi, sonkyo, matawari, butsukari-geiko, sanban-geiko

keiko-aite, practice opponent

keikoba, heya's practice area with the dohyo and teppo if not several, see keiko, agari-zashiki

keikoba keihi, allowance paid by kyokai to the shisho every other month to support the upbringing of the rikishi; since early 2000 the sum has been 10 000 yen per rikishi

keiko mawashi, mawashi used in keiko, that of the sekitori is light in colour and individually measured whereas the toriteki use dark mawashi previously used by their ani-deshi

keiko-so-ken, keiko followed by the supporters (tomonokai, koenkai), see agari-zashiki

keitou bessou atari, see kazoku-betsu so-atari

kekaeshi, minor inner footsweep, kimarite in which the attacker will sweep his aite's leg out from under him by kicking the defender's leg from the inside. The sweep is right foot to right foot or left to left. The footsweep is often accompanied by a well-timed slap on the defender's back as he begins to lean forward.

kekka, match result, especially results of a whole tournament day, see shiroboshi, kuroboshi, hikiwake, azukari, itami-wake, yasumi, fusensho, fusenpai, kinboshi, ginboshi

ken, suffix signifying prefecture

kenka-yotsu, struggle of two rikishi favouring different mawashi grips (hidariyotsu or migiyotsu) attempting to get their respective favourite grips from each other's mawashi, compare with ai-yotsu, see yotsu-zumo

kengamine, the part of a tawara above dohyo surface; often used as an idiom, see shobu-dawara, kado-dawara, fumi-dawara, shio-kago, janome, hyo, agedawara

kenninfubatsu, rikishi with courage and tenacity to wrestle relatively equally against aite who should have easier time against him

kensayaku, an official who at one time assisted in arranging the honbasho; nowadays might be a synonym for shimpan, see torishimari, sodanyaku, sewagata

kensho-kin, encouragement money in a single torikumi by a single sponsor whose amount is specified by kyokai (currently 60 000 yen half of which is given to the winning rikishi); there can be upto thirty or even more kensho-kin bought in a very anticipated torikumi

keppan, blood seal pressed with a thumb symbolizing dedication to the document in question; red colour of the tegata might be influenced by the keppan

keren-zumo, show sumo, way of wrestling shunned by the oyakata where imposing and unconventional techniques are sought as an end in itself

kesho-mawashi, sekitori's (and yumitori's) ornamental, silken and often very expensive cloth usually paid by the tanimachi or koenkai worn on top of dohyo mawashi in the dohyo-iri ceremony; onto kesho-mawashi is embroidered its wearer's shikona and the name of the donor; always created by men, see also shinjo shusse hiro

kessho-sen, sixth and final round of those jungyo tournaments that are held in a cup format when there are just two best sekitori left in the tournament, see ikkaisen, nikaisen, sankaisen, jun-jun-kessho, jun-kessho

ketaguri, pulling inside ankle sweep, kimarite usually seen at the tachiai, the attacker will leap to the side and kick or sweep his aite's lead leg from the inside while slapping the shoulder or pulling the arm closest to him.

ketsudan, determination

kettei-sen, play-off system to be used in a situation when two or more rikishi, be they do-beya or not, have equal number of wins (yusho-doten, usually from eleven to thirteen, seldom fourteen) after the hon-wari and the yusho needs to be decided with an additional torikumi or several; also a collective term including tomoe-sen situations, see aibeya, wakaimonogashira

kettei tomoe-sen, see tomoe-sen

ki, mental power, also synonym for hyoushi-gi

kiai ga haitteiru, fighting spirit of a rikishi who is exceptionally intense during shikkiri, for example Takatoriki

kiai wo ireru, improving the fighting spirit and tenaciousness of young rikishi by using mild physical violence, for example beating with bamboo sticks

kigaku, Chinese horoscope fortune tellings

kikaku, insert of a TV program, for instance report shown in the midst of honbasho coverage about preparation for the honbasho of some especially interesting or topical rikishi

kikansha, "steam engine"; term sometimes used for a furious offensive yori; best examples could be yokozuna Kashiwado and Kotonishiki

kiki shinwa, mythical characteristics of sumo as a part of Japanese story of the creation

kiku, see shungiku

kimarigoto, unwritten behavioral codes Japanese people expect from the gaijin and from themselves

kimarite, winning technique; currently there are 82 kimarite listed, compare with isamiashi, koshikudake

kimarite-gakari, oyakata sitting at shomen and taking care of jonai hoso, ie. announcing the torikumi winner and used kimarite, see shobu-kekka

kimaru, rikishi's arms tied up by aite with kannuki

kimboshi, see kinboshi

kimchee, see kim-chi

kim-chi, Korean style pickles

kime, eliminating aite's arms by tying them up inside one's own arms; part of some kimarite

kimedashi, arm barring force out, kimarite in which the attacker will lock up or bar the defender's arms by wrapping his own arms around them from the outside. He will then grab one of his own wrists, pulling up and in. This puts tremendous pressure on the defender's elbows and allows the attacker to march or swing his aite backwards and out of the dohyo.

kime-ni-iku, see kime-ni-yuku

kime-ni-yuku, attempting kimeru

kimeru, eliminating aite's arms using kannuki

kimetaoshi, arm barring force down, kimarite in which the attacker will bar his aite's arm or arms from the outside. He will than force the aite down by throwing his weight into and on top of him. It is most often seen today after the aite has a achieved a double inside grip.

Kimigahama, myoseki which belongs to Hakkaku-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Kimigahama, heya which is no longer active; merged with Izutsu-beya in 1978

Kimigayo, national anthem of Japan

kimono, traditional dress in Japan

Kimura, the more prestigious of the two gyoji schools; recognised by their way of holding gumbai palm facing downwards whereas the Shikimori hold gumbai palm facing upwards, see Kimura Shonosuke, Shikimori Inosuke, compare with Shikimori

Kimura Sehei, official name of the former Kise-beya, see Shikimori Hidejiro

Kimura Shonosuke, highest ranked gyoji (tategyoji) who is equivalent to rikishis' higashi sei-yokozuna; purple shibusa knots of his costume are characteristical for Kimura Shonosuke, compare with Shikimori Inosuke

kinboshi, "gold star", officially recognized and recorded shiroboshi by a rikishi ranked below komusubi against yokozuna in hon-wari honbasho torikumi; also entitles rikishi for a financial bonus, compare with ginboshi

Kindai, either Kanazawa or Kinki University

kinenkan, memorial hall, (small) museum

kinji-te, hansoku type grips, gestures or behaviour such as pulling hair, kicking and throwing water on aite's face (used in shokkiri, that'll be the day when a rikishi actually does that for real!), see also hana-zumo, intai kogyo

kin-te, see kinji-te

kiri, pushing aite off the dohyo while having a grip on his mawashi

kirikaeshi, twisting backward knee trip, kimarite in which the attacker will take a deep step forward with his lead leg so his knee is placed behind his aite's lead leg; he will then throw aite down by twisting him backwards and over that knee

Ki-Rin, era during the last years of 1970's dominated by yokozuna Wajima and ozeki Takanohana, see Rin-Ko, Haku-Ho, Tochi-Waka, Ake-Taka, Kita-Tama, jidai

Kiritsuma, see Shinmei, Irimoya

Kiriyama, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-komusubi Kurosegawa; located in Arakawa-ku

kiryoku, will power, will to win, see mukiryoku

kiryoku no chigai, change of kiryoku (in the midst of a torikumi?)

Kise, heya which belonged to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and was lead by moto-maegashira (mai-me 9) Kiyonomori since 1967; merged with Kiriyama-beya after Hatsu Basho 2000; the other one of the two heya originally founded by a gyoji, see Shikihide

kita, north, see higashi, nishi, minami

Kitajin, myoseki which belongs to Nishonoseki-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

kita-kata, (nominally) northern side of dohyo

kita-kata shimpan, shimpan sitting on the northern side of the dohyo

Kitano Tenmangu, shrine in Kyoto constructed in 947 where yokozuna at a given time every 25 years (lastly on March 26th, 2002) perform their dohyo-iri ceremony

Kitanoumi, heya which belongs to Dewanoumi-ichimon and is lead by moto-yokozuna Kitanoumi; located in Koto-ku

Kitanoumi, one of the two ichidai toshiyori; possessed by dai-yokozuna of similar name, see Taiho

Kita-Tama, era during the change of 1960's and 1970's dominated by yokozuna Kitanofuji and Tamanoumi, see Rin-Ko, Tochi-Waka, Ake-Taka, Haku-ho, Ki-Rin, jidai

kiyome-jiro, throwing coarse salt onto dohyo prior to torikumi in order to purify dohyo from the effect of evil spirits and to disinfect possible cuts rikishi might suffer in the heat of torikumi; some rikishi rub salt to certain parts of their bodies which they especially want to protect from an injury, see shio, shio-kago, makushita

Kiyomigata, heya which is no longer active

Kiyomigata, myoseki which belongs to Mihogaseki-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Kochi, prefecture

kodomo-zumo, sumo performed by kids individually or with joined forces against a real rikishi

koen, tour abroad presenting ozumo; usually quite short with most high-ranked rikishi participating; arranged by kyokai after invitation from an official source in host county, compare with jungyo

koenkai, sort of a fan club of a sekitori (or heya) whose members pay quite significant amounts of money to be noted in publicity as in connection with the sekitori (or whole heya); pays the kesho-mawashi of the sekitori and organizes various occasions, comapre with tomonokai, see danpatsu-shiki, goshugi

kohai, junior, rikishi of lower rank (?), see ani-deshi, compare with senpai

ko-han-sen, about ten makuuchi torikumi following nakairi which also are the last ones of a honbasho day, see zen-han-sen

koho bucho, bucho responsible for kyokai's public relations

Kohto-ku, see Koto-ku

kohyou, exceptionally small rikishi

Kojiki, the oldest Japanese chronic where also sumo is mentioned for the first time; from 712

kojin-betsu so-atari, hypothetical rule according to which all rikishi would have to wrestle against each other in hon-wari torikumi even if they are from the same heya; evidently relatives would not have to wrestle against each other in hon-wari torikumi though even in case kojin-betsu so-atari would be taken into use, see ichimon-betsu so-atari, heya-betsu so-atari

kojin yusho seido, system in use since 1909 where individual rikishi compete for yusho instead of teams; lit. individual yusho system

kokka, national anthem, see Kimigayo

kokkai, see diet

Kokonoe, heya which belongs to Takasago-ichimon and is lead by moto-yokozuna Chiyonofuji; located in Sumida-ku

kokonoka-me, ninth day of honbasho, see tournament days

kokoro, erroneous and folksy expression for rei done by the winning rikishi after torikumi before possibly receiving the kachinanori, see shu-rei

kokosei rikishi

kokubetsu-shiki, wake for the deceased, see tsuya

kokugi, national sport, see ozumo

Kokugikan, see Ryogoku Kokugikan

Kokumin-eiyo-shou, badge of honour to a merited Japanese granted by the cabinet; in kakkai moto-yokozuna Chiyonofuji is the only one who has received this honour

kokumin taiiku taikai, national athletic meet

kokusai, adj., international

kokusaika, internationalization

kokusaigin

Kokusai Sumo Remmei, presumably International Sumo Federation

kokuseki, nationality

kokusho, stylized chrysanthemum figure which acts as the symbol of the Imperial family

kokutai, see kokumin taiiku taikai

kokyu o awasete tatsu, synchronization of rikishis' breathing before tachiai

kokyu wo awaseru, rikishis' failure in determining the beginning of tachiai (?), see matta

koma-inu, "lion dog", one of the two old shikinihairu styles which are no longer defined separately, compare with hira-gumo, see hanmi-shikiri

komatasukui, over thigh scooping body drop, kimarite best used in combination with an uwatenage (overarm throw) or a shitatenage (underarm throw). As the aite defends against the throw by taking a deep step forward, the attacker will reach down with his free hand and grab the aite's leg on or near the thigh. He will then pull up, driving the aite over backwards.

kombu, edible alga

kome, rice

kome-bitsu, "money casket", mockery nickname for moto-yokozuna Futahaguro; the origin of the expression is the spoiling way Tatsunami Oyakata and Okamisan treated Futahaguro

Komeito, political wing of Sokagakkai belonging to the political left

komusubi, fourth highest rank of rikishi and also the lowest rank in sanyaku, see sekiwake, maegashira

komusubi ni kano, formerly an expression for the winner of third from last torikumi on senshuraku no matter what his actual rank was, see kore yori san-yaku (ni gozari-masuru), yaku-zumo ni kano, sekiwake ni kano, ozeki ni kano

konaki-zumo, ceremony very distantly resembling torikumi; participants consist of baby boys born on the previous year and winner is determined by whom is the first one to burst into cry

Kono sumo ichiban ni te, honjitsu no KI uchidome KI KI, Kimura Shonosuke's announcement for musubi-no-ichiban; KI indicates the sound of yobidashi's hyoushi-gi sticks

konsen

Kookaku-gumi

Korakuen, uncovered baseball field on which honbasho were held during the final parts of the second world war when Japan's imperial army took over the original Kokugikan

kore yori san-yaku (ni gozari-masuru), three last hon-wari torikumi at senshuraku and hence in whole honbasho preceded by sanyaku soroibumi, see yaku-zumo ni kano

koro-kin, large sum of retirement money paid to a high-ranking rikishi after his active career has ended

koseki, homeplace register and the document gotten from there, see honseki(-ti), shusshin-chi

koshi, pelvis

koshikudake, inadvertent collapse, one of five situations in which a rikishi can win a torikumi without actually initiating a kimarite; situation where rikishi falls over backwards without his aite attempting any technique; often occurs when a rikishi overcommits to an attack; recorded outside official list of winning techniques, see isamiashi, okuriashi, tsukite, tsukihiza

koshinage, hip throw, kimarite in which the attacker will turn into his aite while pulling him onto his hips; as the attacker continues to pull he will straigthen his knees throwing the defender over and onto his back; koshinage can be done from either and inside or outside grip and it is very rare in ozumo

koshiwari, some kind of practice

kosho, rikishi's injury during honbasho which leads to kosho seido

kosho seido, arrangement which allowed rikishi who was injured during a honbasho torikumi to maintain his rank in the next honbasho (but only in one) despite the fact that he may have had to skip a whole honbasho due to the injury, rule was abolished in 2004, see kyujo, tochu-kyujo, zen-kyu, yasumi

koshou, pepper

kosho-yasumi, absence under the kosho status

ko-taishi, crown prince, see tenno

kote, tying aite's upper arm

kote, forearm

kotehineri, armlocking twist down, kimarite in which the attacker has wrapped his arm around aite's inside gripping arm and from that position locks that arm at aite's biceps or elbow and twists him around and down in the direction of that inside arm; attacker's other arm can be on aite's back, around his head or on the mawashi; one of the twelve kimarite added in the 2001 winning kimarite list expansion; not seen in ozumo so far

kotenage, armlock throw, kimarite in which the attacker will throw his aite by wrapping his arm around the aite's inside gripping arm, locking it up on or near the elbow and turning away from him; sometimes used as a last ditch attempt to win at the tawara; dangerous move to aite's arm and has in fact caused many elbow and shoulder injuries

koto, musical instrument with thirteen strings, held on the floor and resembles zither; traditionally first part of the shikona of Sadogakate-beya's rikishi inheritance of Kotobiki-jinja in Kagawa prefecture

kotodama, mystical characteristics of Japanese language

Koto-ku, district of Tokyo where Ajigawa-, Asahiyama-, Kitanoumi-, Nakadachi-, Oguruma-, Oshiogawa- and Taiho-beya are located, see Mantoku-in

kougou(heika), Empress

kouseki, merits

koushou, see kosho

koyori, lottery tickets indicating the order of kettei-sen and tomoe-sen torikumi

kozumatori, ankle pick, the most common form of this kimarite has the attacker leaning into his aite while attempting a forward drive; as he is moving forward he will slide his hand down his aite's leg from the outside, grabbing it at the ankle or the base of the calf; he will then pull that ankle towards him and up while driving his body into his aite forcing him over onto his back; a variation of this technique has the attacker pulling on the same ankle or calf from behind his aite; one of the twelve kimarite added in the 2001 winning kimarite list expansion

kozumo, "little sumo", (historical?) tournaments at Yasukuni shrine for those who didn't exceed the height limit and couldn't enter ozumo

kubi, wrapping arm around aite's neck

kubi, neck

kubihineri, head twisting throw, kimarite in which the attacker will wrap one hand around his aite's neck; with his other hand he will grab aite's inside gripping arm; the attacker will then drive the hand gripping the aite's neck in the direction that hand's palm is facing and twists aite into the clay; this is considered a power technique and is very rare

kubinage, headlock throw, kimarite which is almost identical to a technique of the same name found in all combative arts that include any kind of grappling; the attacker will turn into his aite and throws him by wrapping one arm around his neck as he turns: the attacker's other hand is usually gripping the aite's arm furthest from him from the outside; in ozumo this kimarite has hardly ever offensive significance; it is usually made from a defending position, often as a last resort; kubinage is also sumo slang for having sex due to the neck embracing position

Kugatsu Basho, honbasho in September, see Aki Basho

kuisagari, way of defending from aite's attack often used by small rikishi by pushing one's head against the attacker's chest and taking the mae-mitsu grip on his mawashi and simultaneously lowering one's pelvis, compare with atama wo tsukeru

kui-sagaru, v., to resort to kuisagari

Kumagatani, heya which is no longer active

Kumagatani, myoseki which belongs to Oshima-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Kumagaya, heya which is no longer active

Kumamoto, prefecture

Kumegawa, heya which is no longer active

Kumegawa, myoseki which belongs to Sadogatake-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

kumi, collective term for different pulling techniques, compare with hanare

kumi-kata, position of hands on aite's mawashi or body; struggle for achieving a better position, see kumite

kumite, the exact (e.g. the number of mawashi layers under each finger) position of the rikishi (kumi-kata) when a mizu-iri is called that is memorized by the gyoji who after mizu-iri attempts to duplicate kumite as closely as possible to minimize the effect of mizu-iri on the kekka of torikumi

kumu, v. to grab, see kunde sumo wo toru

-kun, suffix added to the names of people of the same age or younger (classmates etc.); nowadays can be used with women's names as well, compare with -sama, -chan, -zeki, -san, -oyakata

kunde sumo wo toru, sumo where the bodies of the rikishi are in contact with each other, see yotsu-zumo, compare with hanarete sumo wo toru

Kunitachi-shi, district of Tokyo where Araiso-beya is located

kunroku, "9-6", ozeki incapable of holding the honour of his exalted rank by often failing to score double-digit wins in honbasho let alone striving for yokozuna promotion; goes often kadoban even without injuries and is likely to eventually lose his rank, see sekizeki

kun-yomi, Japanese reading of a kanji, see on-yomi

Kuramae Kokugikan, small sumo museum at Ryogoku Kokugikan

kuri, chestnut

kuroboshi, "black star", mark drawn on hoshitorihyo indicating loss in torikumi, compare with shiroboshi, see kinboshi, ginboshi, yasumi

kuro-busa, black decorative knot (busa) that hangs above northwestern corner of dohyo symbolizing the black turtle (tortoise?) Genbu and winter, see aka-busa, shiro-busa, ao-busa

kurobusa-shita, northwestern corner of dohyo

kusen, close torikumi

kyakuseki, historically a rikishi whose rank was for some time artificial since he had entered the kyokai from some other sumo organization, see besseki, compare with makushita tsukedashi

kyodai, brother, see kyodai-deshi

kyodai-deshi, rikishi of the same heya

Kyojin

kyokai, see Nihon Sumo Kyokai

kyokai ryohi, travel allowance paid to the sekitori according to their rank for each honbasho held outside Tokyo, see chiho-basho

kyokai-zeikin, kyokai taxes

Kyoshujo, Sumo Training School, sumo school operating at the Kokugikan (?)

Kyoto, prefecture and Japan's former capital of almost 1.5 million people

kyougi, as such a neutral word for any kind of meeting; in the context of ozumo a meeting initiated by a mono-ii performed by a shimpan or several or very exceptionally by a hikae-rikishi about whether the gyoji's decision about the kekka of the torikumi should be upheld or not, see torinaoshi, gunbaidoori, sashi-chigae

kyu, less prestigious class of the two overall classes of amateur sumo, divided into subclasses, 1.kyu, 2.kyu,..., 10.kyu which is the lowest rank, compare with dan

kyujo, injury; injured rikishi forced either to skip a whole honbasho (zen-kyu) or retire from a honbasho due to an injury sustained during it (tochu-kyujo), see kosho seido, yasumi

kyukin naoshi, wage correction (?)

kyuukin naoshi no ichiban

Kyushu, the southernmost of the four main islands of Japan, see Fukuoka

Kyushu Basho, honbasho held in Fukuoka in November on the island of Kyushu; famous for the exceptional enthusiasm of the audience

Kyushu-basho bucho, bucho responsible for Kyushu Basho held in Fukuoka

Kyushu-basho tanto bucho, see Kyushu-basho bucho

Kyoto, prefecture

kyuyo

kwan, ancient Japanese weight unit, about 3.8 kilograms

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

Machiyama, myoseki which belongs to Mihogaseki-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata

madamada, gyoji's repeated saying to other rikishi performing shikinihairu that his aite is already ready for tachiai and respectively to other rikishi that the other rikishi in not yet ready to begin torikumi

mada yo, mada yo, see madamada

maebukuro, see tate-mitsu

maegashira, fifth highest and lowest rikishi rank of the makuuchi division; in the banzuke also juryo rikishi are classified as maegashira; in principle any rikishi higher than mae-zumo level and lower than sanyaku can be considered a maegashira, see hiramaku, maegashira hitto, maegashira-joi, maku-jiri

maegashira hitto, two highest ranked maegashira (higashi maegashira mai-me 1 and nishi maegashira mai-me 1), compare with juryo hitto, binbou-gami

maegashira-joi, about ten highest ranked maegashira who have the hardest schedule in honbasho having to fight against all yaku-rikishi and each other

maekaki

mae-mawashi, rikishi's two-handed grip on his aite's mae-mitsu

mae-mitsu, grip on aite's mawashi at his stomach area, classified as an oshi technique; also mawashi's horisontal part on the front side, see yoko-mitsu, tate-mitsu

mae-sabaki, preconceived bout plan

maesabaki ga ii, rikishi who is skillful in avoiding oshi and ottsuke and often gets his favourite grip on his aite's mawashi

mae-seki

mae-tatemitsu, mawashi's vertical part on the rikishi's front side by which grapping is illegal both in ozumo and in amateur sumo causing immediate kuroboshi, see yoko-mitsu, mae-mitsu, ato-tatemitsu

maeuri, advance sales of tickets for the upcoming honbasho

maezumo, kind of seventh ozumo division where are ranked those wrestlers who don't yet have an official banzukeranking in the lowest jonokuchi division or to which wrestlers who have previously had a banzuke ranking might drop because of injuries or unusually bad results

Magaki, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-yokozuna Wakanohana II; located in Sumida-ku

Magaki effect, situation contrary to Futa factor where do-beyas have to face higher ranked aite because of heya-betsu so-atari rule; named after situation in 1997 amongst Magaki-beya rikishi (Wakanojo, Gojoro and Yamato all at the bottom of makuuchi division)

mage, rikishi's hair-do; inheritance of the 19th century, see oh-ichoh-mage, chonmage, tokoyama, bintsuke

magebo

mage-yui, hairdressing of the rikishi prepared by the tokoyama

maguro, tuna

mai-me

Mainichi Shimbun, newspaper, see yusho-gaku

maisuu, remainder between shiroboshi and kuroboshi, determines rikishi's kakuage or kakusage and hence for most part rikishi's ranking in the next banzuke, see kachi-koshi, make-koshi

maiyukin, one-time honourific sum paid to a rikishi ascending to the rank of ozeki or yokozuna

majimekeiko, rikishi whose attitude towards keiko is exceptionally profound

make-doku, toriteki's kuroboshi in his (luckily gotten) eight honwari torikumi which doesn't affect negatively on his ranking in the next banzuke, compare with kachi-doku

make-koshi, majority of losses in honbasho, no more than seven shiroboshi in fifteen torikumi or three shiroboshi in seven torikumi; guarantees that there won't be kakuage (promotion) but almost always there will be kakusage (demotion), compare with kachi-koshi

makikae, see sashikae

makiotoshi, twist down, kimarite in which the attacker will throw his aite by twisting him towards his own, inside hand. When executing the throw, the attacker will not be gripping the mawashi.

makite, lit. losing hand

makke-kai, see sashikae

maku-jiri, the lowest ranked makuuchi division higashi maegashira who doesn't have similar mai-me ranked, nishi side rikishi because of odd-numbered amount of yaku-rikishi; term is also used for both higashi and nishi side maegashira when both lowest ranked mai-me maegashira are in banzuke

maku ni agaru, well-performed juryo rikishi who is likely to be promoted to makuuchi in the next banzuke

makushita, third highest ranked division of the six professional ozumo divisions; first one where kiyome-jiro is allowed in approximately ten torikumi prior to juryo division dohyo-iri in case there is enough time and in the five last torikumi after juryo division dohyo-iri; makushita can also refer to all four divisions below juryo

makushita-ika, makushita and below, toriteki

makushita-joi, thirty highest ranked rikishi in makushita division (HMs1-NMs15) amongst which it is possible to be promoted to juryo division with zensho yusho (7-0) or simple kachi-koshi (4-3 or better) if one is close enough to the top of the division and there are available slots in juryo for one reason or the other, compare with maegashira-joi

makushita joi goban, see joi goban

makushita-kaku, gyoji who referees makushita torikumi

makushita tsukedashi, very successful amateur rikishi who is allowed to start ozumo at the bottom of third highest division (makushita) or even at rank makushita 15 (makushita 15 tsukedashi)

makunouchi, see makuuchi

makuuchi, highest ranked division of ozumo and naturally most popular, league of forty top men since 1991 (previously 38)

makuuchi besseki, see besseki

makuuchi juunen, period of ten years ranked in the makuuchi division; Japanese saying implying that enough is enough for anyone

makuuchi-kaku, gyoji who referees makuuchi torikumi where both rikishi are maegashira (or sometimes other one is from juryo), compare with sanyaku-kaku, tategyoji, fukutategyoji

makuuchi saiko yusho, honbasho victory in makuuchi division; saiko means "the best" indicating makuuchi division's superiority to lower divisions' yusho

mamemaki

mame-rikishi, child practising sumo, see kodomo-zumo, wanpaku-zumo

man-in onrei, way of thanking audience for its plentifulness, see oh-iri-bukuro, manin ore no taremaku

manin ore no taremaku, ribbons hanging above tsuriyane from the roof of the honbasho arena thanking audience for a sold-out day, see oh-iri-bukuro, man-in onrei

manjoo-ichi, unanimous decision which is the practically always the case concerning promoting ozeki to yokozuna since members of Yokozuna Shingi Iinkai who are against promotion and are in minority simply withdrawn from voting at all

Mantoku-in, temple located in Koto-ku; there are many graves of oyakata and tategyoji; in the areas of other nearby temples there are many more graves of persons linked to ozumo's history

Manzaikai, historical support association of the rikishi, compare with koenkai

masu-seki, expensive and second closest boxes from the dohyo with four floor seats, see zabuton, dekata, chaya, isu-seki, tachi-seki, tamari-seki, box seki, sunakaburi, jiyu-seki

masu, wooden box used in dai-kan-jo to measure the amount of silver and gold coins the oyakata and rikishi were entitled to twice a year

matanashi, gyoji's order to rikishi to begin torikumi without further delay, see jikan ippai

matawari, often painful stretching exercise where rikishi sits on the ground legs as wide apart as possible and then tries to lower his torso to touch the ground between his legs

Matsuchiyama, heya which is no longer active

Matsudo-shi, district of Chiba where Naruto-beya and Sadogatake-beya are located

Matsugane, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-ozeki Wakashimazu, located in Funabashi-shi

matta, premature start of torikumi without mutual understanding with aite, according to new rule (since 1998) rikishi who commits two matta loses torikumi automatically although this rule has not been used, see jikan-mae

mattanashi kamaete, "Time's up, prepare yourselves"

mawari-komi, wrapping around aite somehow

mawashi, (dohyo mawashi), about 40 cm long, wide, one-coloured belt made out of silk cloth in case of sekitori and black cotton cloth in case of deshi; official colours for sekitori's silk mawashi are black, dark blue and purple but this rule is constantly broken and kyokai overlooks it as long as the mawashi is not too white; on the other hand even silver mawashi are in use nowadays, see sagari, kesho-mawashi, keiko mawashi, tsukebito, shimekomi, mae-mitsu, yoko-mitsu, tate-mitsu, maebukuro, mae-tatemitsu, ato-tatemitsu

mawashi uchiwa, exceptional situation where gyoji changes his mind about the kekka of torikumi after he has pointed winning rikishi's tozai side with his gumbai; sometimes this occurs when gyoji is temporarily mistaken of the tozai side of the clearly victorious rikishi

mawasu, v. to go or wrap around something

mechakucha ureshii, rikishi's surge of emotion and difficulty to maintain posture after getting ureshii-hoshi, lit. excessively, unreasonably happy

megumareta taikaku, "blessed physique", ideal body type

mei, "great", prefix used for emphasizing the successfulness of someone, for example exceptionally successful sekiwake can be called mei-sekiwake

Meidai, either Meiji or Nagoya University

Meiji, Emperor Mutsuhito's neng˘ (September 8th, 1868 - July 30th, 1912) during which yokozuna ranking became established to its present form

meijin-yokozuna, yokozuna known for his technical brilliance, see dai-yokozuna, lit. master yokozuna

meiseki, mistransliteration of myoseki

menko

menkyo, see yokozuna menkyo

(meritocracy), individual's success being based on his talent and skills, compare with age (seniority), heritage (aristocracy), wealth (plutocracy)

mezurashii, unusual, rare

miai kekkon, arranged marriage, see o-miai, nakoudo

miatte, see miawasete

miatte-miatte, see miawasete

miawasete, gyoji's request to rikishi to face each other and begin shikinihairu

Michinoku, heya which belongs to Tokitsukaze-ichimon and is lead by moto-ozeki Kirishima, located in Sumida-ku

Mie, prefecture

migi, right, compare with hidari

migi-gata, western team in sechie-zumo, see hidari-gata, tozai

migikiki, rikishi who prefers right-sided grips, compare with hidarikiki

migi-sashi, see hidari-sashi

migi-uwate, right hand inside, left hand outside grip, compare with hidari-uwate

migiyotsu, rikishis' grips on each others' mawashi so that right hands are inside, compare with hidariyotsu, see uwate, shitate, morozashi, ai-yotsu, kenka-yotsu, tokui-yotsu

Mihogaseki, heya which belongs to Dewanoumi-ichimon and is lead by moto-ozeki Masuiyama II, located in Sumida-ku; originally todori of Osaka-Zumo

mijuri

mikado, Emperor, see tenno

mikan, mandarin

mikka-me, third day of honbasho, see tournament days

miko, young unmarried women who work in shinto temples and wear white kimono and red hakama; they dance kagura dances and sell amulets

mikoshi, portable altar

minami, south, see kita, higashi, nishi

minami-kata, (nominally) southern side of dohyo

minami-kata shimpan, shimpan sitting on the south side of the dohyo

minarai, three-year learning period of a tokoyama student after which he gets a position as regular tokoyama at the rank 5-toh

Minato, heya which belongs to Tokitsukaze-ichimon and is lead by moto-komusubi Yutakayama, located in Kawaguchi-shi; originally todori of Osaka-Zumo

Minatogawa, heya which is no longer active

Minatogawa, myoseki which belongs to Nishonoseki-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Minatoya

Minesaki, see Minezaki

Minezaki, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-maegashira (mai-me 2) Misugiiso, located in Sumida-ku

minna sumo ga suki, rikishi who has tendency to be part of exceptionally long torikumi due to his wrestling style, for example sekiwake Kotonowaka

mi-okuri, postponement of especially meaningful kakuage (promotion from ozeki to yokozuna or from sekiwake to ozeki) because sekitori at hand didn't (narrowly) pass the sometimes controversial prerequisites for the promotion

mirin, golden coloured, sweet risewine with low alcohol content used in Japanese kitchen

miso, light (shiro) or dark brown (hatcho) soya paste used in soups and sauces

misogi, purification ceremony

Misugisato, jun-toshiyori which belongs to Futagoyama-beya, see oyakata

mitokorezeme, triple attack force out, kimarite which involves combining three separate attacks at the same time. While the attacker attempts an inside leg trip with one leg, he will grab the defender's other leg behind the thigh and try to pull that leg out from under him. At the same time, he will drive his head into his aite's stomach or chest in order to force him backwards.

mitsu, another word for mawashi

mitsu-domoe no tatakai, tomoe-sen in which three rikishi participate

mitsu-domoe-sen, tomoe-sen in which three rikishi participate

Miyagi, prefecture

Miyagino, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-maegashira (mai-me 13) Chikubayama, located in Sumida-ku

Miyazaki, prefecture

mizuhaki-guchi, container into which chikara-mizu is sput

mizuhikimaku, curtain at the lower edge of tsuriyane symbolising motion of the clouds and passing of time; busa hang from the corners of mizuhikimaku, see agemaki

mizu-iri, break of about one minute after 4-5 minutes of fighting, usually ordered by jikan-gakari shimpan, if the torikumi exceptionally continues another 4-5 minutes gyoji or shimpan bucho usually proposes discontinuation of torikumi (mizu-iri niban-go torinaoshi)

mizu-iri niban-go torinaoshi, extremely rare decision by shimpan bucho according to which already once interrupted torikumi is interrupted again due to lack of initiative from both rikishi, in this case torikumi will begin all over again after two following torikumi, see torinaoshi

mizu-oke, chikara-mizu's container at the corner of dohyo, see shio-kago, chikara-gami, mizu-oke-dawara

mizu-oke-dawara, two hyo on both sides of the dohyo placed under mizu-oke

mizu-suke, see mizu-oke

mizu-taki, one of the two basic styles of chankonabe in which food is boiled and dipped to various kind of sauces, see soppu-daki

mochi, rice cake, traditional food on New Year's Eve; yokozuna often demonstrate how to make mashed rice with traditional wooden equipment in promotional material like calendars, see surikogi

mochi-kyukin, basic unit of the hoshokin system that defines the income of any given active rikishi

mochi-tsuki

mo gomen, words on top of the middle column of banzuke which were used to indicate the presence of gomen fuda

Momi

Mombu-sho, Education, Science and Culture Ministry under which kyokai operates

Mombu Daijin-sho, trophy to yusho winning rikishi given by Minister of Education (Mombu Daijin)

Mongoru no ookami, "Mongolian wolf", nickname of yokozuna Asashoryu

mono-ii, raise of hand(s) by a shimpan or on extremely rare occasion hikae-rikishi to indicate a will to discuss amongst shimpans whether kekka ruled by gyoji was correct

monoii, see mono-ii

montsuki, festive kimono which has its owner's kamon; when rikishi wears montsuke they also wear oh-ichoh-mage hairdo

morodashi, very rare unraveling of mawashi during torikumi which automatically results in kuroboshi, see hansoku, fujomake

morote-tsuki, evidently synonym for morotsuki

morohazu, push targeted at aite's both armpits simultaneously

morohazu-dashi, see morohazu

morotsuki, two-handed tsuki, see teppo

morozashi, advantageous grip on aite's mawashi so that arms and hands are inside aite's arms making it impossible or very hard for aite to take a grip on mawashi, see hidariyotsu, migiyotsu, uwate, ryo-shitate, soto-yotsu, kannuki

moshiai-geiko, form of practise where winning rikishi continues to fight against rikishi who he has picked from the bunch of rikishi standing around dohyo until he loses, then the next rikishi does the same

moto, adj. former; used when referring to retired rikishi and his highest rank, for instance present Futagoyama Oyakata achieved the rank of ozeki while active wearing shikona Takanohana (I) so he can be referred as moto-ozeki Takanohana (I)

moto-yui, ribbon made out of washi paper and hardened with wax; tokoyama ties oh-ichoh-mage up with moto-yui

motsureru sumo, expression used for exceptionally persistent rikishi's sumo

motsureru sumo wa omoshiroi, expression according to which characteristics for good sumo is the difficulty in naming the winner

mottoi, see moto-yui

Mou-Gyu, "brave bull", moto-yokozuna Kotozakura's (Sadogatake Oyakata) nickname describing his all-out tachiai

moushiai, see moshiai-geiko

muika-me, sixth day of honbasho, see tournament days

mukiryoku, spiritless or even fixed torikumi, see gachinko, chubon, yaocho, chusha, kiryoku

mukiryoku zumo, spiritless way of fighting without really pursuing shiroboshi; expression was taken into use by the mayor of Tokyo Shintaro Ishihara at the 1960's after seeing torikumi between Taiho and Kashiwado; raises naturally suspicions of yaocho

mukou, adj. opposite

mukou-jomen, audience section of the southern side of dohyo

mukou shimpan, see minami-kata shimpan

muko-yoshi, adoption system that for example might be used in a situation where an oyakata who has no son takes his most successful deshi to the heir of his heya; apparently usually the adoptee becomes the adopter's son-in-law as well

mukozuke, area of neck and upper torso where rikishi usually aims at in tachiai

mune wo dasu, butsukari-geiko where higher ranked rikishi pushes the lower ranked rikishi, compare with mune wo kasu, see mune wo kariru

mune wo kariru, v. to act as sparring partner, younger rikishi's chance to practise butsukari-geiko with an older rikishi, see mune wo kasu, mune wo dasu

mune wo kasu, butsukari-geiko where higher ranked rikishi lends his chest to lower ranked rikishi, compare with mune wo dasu, see mune wo kariru

murui-rikishi, rikishi who didn't reach the rank of yokozuna for whatever reason but who made an unforgettable impact on people at their time and whose shikona are mentioned next to those of yokozuna in Yokozuna Rikishi-Hi memorial

musabetsu-kyu, open class; match schedule without weight classes; ozumo uses that contrary to amateur sumo; concept is mainly used in reference to judo's open class

Musashigawa, heya which belongs to Dewanoumi-ichimon and is lead by moto-yokozuna Mienoumi, located in Arakawa-ku

mushi megame-ji, tiny writing used to write jonokuchi ranked rikishis' shikona in banzuke; name comes from the fact that many people need magnifying glass (mushi megame) to be able to read the fine print

muso, grip on aite's leg

musubi-no-ichiban, last torikumi of a tournament day where at least one yokozuna (provided that there are active yokozuna) fights; synonym uchidome, see musubi-no-mae, musubi-no-sanban

musubi-no-mae, penultimate torikumi of tournament day, see musubi-no-ichiban

musubi-no-sanban, last three torikumi of a tournament day, see musubi-no-mae, musubi-no-ichiban

myoji, last name, see namae

myoseki, fixed name and license collection of 105 toshiyori (and also any single license, see jun-toshiyori, toshiyori-kabu, ichidai toshiyori, todori

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

nagaimono ni makarero, rikishi's premature mental surrendering when facing stronger aite

Nagano, prefecture

Nagasaki, prefecture

nage, great number of various throwing techniques, see nage-waza

nage rempatsu, series of attempts to use different nage in order to break aite's balance, possibly successful

nageru, v. to throw, see nage

nage-shugi, spectators' custom to throw all sorts of items onto dohyo in the heat of excitement after popular rikishi's victory; custom was forbidden at the beginning of the last century, compare with zabuton no-gakkai

nage-waza, twelve throwing techniques (throws which include grip on aite's mawashi) of the original 48 kimarite (shijuu-hatte), see hineri-te, kake-waza, sori-te

Nagoya, host city of July honbasho

Nagoya Basho, honbasho in Nagoya in July; exception concerning the formula of date for shonichi, usually shonichi is already the first Sunday of July and not the second Sunday of an odd month as is the case with other honbasho

Nagoya-basho bucho, bucho responsible for Nagoya Basho

Nagoya-basho tanto bucho, see Nagoya-basho bucho

Nagoya-Zumo

Naichi, Hokkaidonese expression for the rest of Japan

naka-aratame, four referees who used to sit on the corners of dohyo their backs against shihon-bashira; since 1930 five shimpan who sit around the dohyo have replaced naka-aratame

nakabi, eighth day of honbasho, the middle point of tournament, always Sunday, see tournament days

Nakadachi, heya which belongs to Dewanoumi-ichimon and is lead by moto-komusubi Ryogoku, located in Koto-ku

Nakagawa, heya which is no longer active

Nakagawa, myoseki which belongs to Oitekaze-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

nakago, handle of sword

nakairi, breaks which interrupt tournament day in between divisions after torikumi in one division have been finished and the next division is preparing to perform their dohyo-iri or preparing in general; in makuuchi division there is also nakairi when half of the torikumi has taken place, during this nakairi shimpan-iin is changed (shobu shimpan kotai); often used particularly for the break between juryo and makuuchi, sometimes as all the torikumi in the two highest divisions, see zen-han-sen, ko-han-sen

nakairi-go, adj. post-nakairi, used as reference to makuuchi torikumi

Nakamura, heya which belongs to Takasago-ichimon and is lead by moto-sekiwake Fujizakura, located in Edogawa-ku, originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo

Nakano-ku, district of Tokyo where Futagoyama-beya is located

nakayoshi, close friend

naki-zumo, ancient ritual where a rikishi holds in his lap a male child less than a year old and tickles him in an effort to make him cry while a gyoji participates in the effort by wearing a frightening mask, compare with akachan dohyo-iri, kodomo-zumo, wanpaku-zumo

nakoudo, spokesman for marriage (often two), see o-miai, miai kekkon

namae, given name, see myoji

namako, sea cucumber, nickname of yokozuna Asahifuji Seiya

namakura-yotsu, yotsu-style preferring rikishi who doesn't favour either of his hand over the other, in other words he doesn't pursue primarily to get hidari-yotsu nor migi-yotsu and hence doesn't have tokui-yotsu; namakura-yotsu is in a way disadvantageous feature during yotsumi because his aite can often get his tokui-yotsu while he himself doesn't have even theoretical chance to respond to aite's tokui-yotsu by taking his own tokui-yotsu (since he doesn't have one!), although the flip side of coin is that he can often force his aite to have some other grip than his tokui-yotsu and doesn't suffer from this arrangement due to his feature of being namakura-yotsu rikishi

Namida no Kanto-sho, movie about ozeki Nayoroiwa's life, made in 1956, lit. Kanto-sho of Tears

Nanatsumori, heya which is no longer active

Nanbu, old county where Yotsugamine-beya was located

Naniwa-ku, district of Osaka where Osaka Furitsu Taiikukan arena is located, see Haru Basho

nanoka-me, seventh day of honbasho, see tournament days

nanori, former term for yobidashi, see fure

Nara, prefecture

Narashino-shi, district of Chiba where Onomatsu-beya is located

Naruhodo Ozumo, original Japanese edition of quite detailed sumo book by Kitade Seigoro; Deborah Iwabuchi has translated the book into English under the title Grand Sumo Fully Illustrated

Naruto, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-yokozuna Takanosato, located in Matsudo-ku

NASR, see Nihon Amateur Sumo Remmei

nato

Natorigawa, heya which is no longer active

natsu, summer, see aki, fuyu, haru

Natsu Basho, honbasho in Kokugikan in May

natto, fermented soya

nebari, rikishi's ability to fight to the very end in torikumi hoping his aite who is in upper hand will succumb to crucial mistake eventually, Akinoshima is a good example of such tenacious rikishi

Negishi, heya which is no longer active

Negishi, toshiyori which kyokai cancelled from the family of Negishi in 1951; traditionally Negishi family had been responsible for writing and delivering of banzuke, see negishi-ryu

negishi-ryu, conservative calligraphy style used for writing banzuke, see sumo moji

Nejigane, heya which is no longer active

neko-damashi, "cat's trick" used by moto-sekiwake Dewanishiki and moto-komusubi Mainoumi amongst others; trick is to clap one's hands together right in front of aite's face in order to distract him and induce natural eye-closing reflex in aite's central nervous system

neng˘, reign era of each emperor and the name given to the a particular era

Nenkan Saita-sho

Nen-Matsu-Nen-Shi, festive season after the turn of year; kyokai takes this into consideration and publishes the banzuke of Haru Basho earlier than usual, see bonen-kai

Nerima-ku, district of Tokyo where Minezaki-beya is located

nesshin, zeal

netsuke, small sculptorial item which prevents the items suspended on obi from falling, see International Netsuke Society

newaza, some kind of technique used to withhold the aite from moving

NHK, national broadcasting company of Japan

niban-daiko, former custom of presenting sekitori by playing yagura-daiko, see ichiban-daiko

niban-go torinaoshi, see mizu-iri niban-go torinaoshi

niban shusse, rikishi candidates in the second round presentation of maezumo, compare with ichiban shusse and sanban shusse; they wear borrowed kesho-mawashi for this presentation, the only time they are allowed to do so before being promoted to a sekitori rank

Nichidai, university in Tokyo with the most famous amateur sumo club in Japan; many rikishi have entered ozumo from Nichidai; traditionally when former Nichidai student is promoted to sekitori level he will get a kesho-mawashi donated by Nichidai whose logo is embroidered in golden on cream white background

Nichidan Kodo, Nihon University Hall, the later name for the first Kokugikan

Nichiren Shoshu, see Sokagakkai

nicho, putting the foot outside the corresponding foot of aite

nichonage, body drop throw, kimarite in which the attacker, working from either an inside or outside grip, will place one leg in front of the defender's leg, usually at the knee, as he turns to face the same direction the defender is facing. As the attacker sweeps back with his leg he will pull forward, throwing the defender over that extended leg.

nidanme, former name of the makushita division

nigate, aite against whom rikishi has had problems to win in the long run; especially higher ranked rikishi's problem to beat lower ranked rikishi but also used in the opposite case; for example Musoyama is Chiyotaikai's nigate, see aikuchi ga ii, aikuchi ga warui, tenteki

nigate-ishiki, rikishi's anticipation filled with fear when he has to face his nigate or some other rikishi he detests to face on the dohyo, compare with nagaimono ni makarero

nigiribasami

Nihon, Japan in Japanese

Nihon Amateur Sumo Remmei, see Nihon Sumo Remmei

Nihon Daigaku, Nichidai's official name

Nihongi, see Nihon Shoki

nihongo, Japanese language

Nihon Housou Kyoukai, see NHK

nihonjin, adj. Japanese, see gaijin

Nihon Shoki, ancient chronicle from the eighth century where there is the earliest written record on sumo from year 23 AD, see Kojiki

Nihon Sumo Kyokai, Japan's professional sumo association operating under Ministry of Education; founded in 1927 when 88 oyakata of Tokyo and 17 oyakata of Osaka were merged

Nihon Sumo Remmei, Japanin amateur sumo union

Niigata, prefecture

nijuudohyo, dohyo used circa 1897 - 1931; janome surrounding tawara had its own tawara surrounding it

nikaisen, second round of those jungyo tournaments that are held in a cup format, see ikkaisen, sankaisen, jun-jun-kessho, jun-kessho, kessho-sen

niku-bakudan, "meat bomb", less benevolent nickname for moto-ozeki Konishiki Yasokichi

niku-dango, meatball

nimaigeri, ankle kicking twist down, kimarite; As the attacker pulls his aite up and into him, he will kick the defender's legs out from under him by striking with the sole of his foot to the outside of the defender's ankle. The sweep is left to right or right to left. As the attacker initiates the necessary footwork, he will use his upper body to throw or twist the defender onto his side or back.

nimai-kansatsu, historically a rikishi who had become a toshiyori while still continuing his active career, see dojo

ninjin, carrot

ninki, adj. popular; fame

ninniku, garlic

Nippon, see Nihon

Nippon Hoso Kyokai, see NHK

niramiai, intense staring by rikishi during shikkiri in order to gain psychological advantage over aite

ni-sei, second generation emigrant, for example moto-maegashira Toyonishiki whose parents moved to USA

nishi, west, western; the less prestigious side of banzuke, see higashi, tozai, kita, minami

nishi hanamichi, path to the dohyo from western side of shitaku-beya, see higashi hanamichi

Nishiiwa, heya which is no longer active

Nishiiwa, myoseki which belongs to Taiho-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo

nishi-kata, (nominally) western side of dohyo

nishi-kata shimpan, shimpan sitting on the western side of dohyo

Nishikido, heya which belongs to Takasago-ichimon and is lead by moto-sekiwake Mitoizumi

nishikie, postcard displaying rikishi

Nishikijima, heya which is no longer active

Nishikijima, myoseki which belongs to Tokitsukaze-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

nishi no kachi, victory of the rikishi on the western side

nishi yokozuna, second highest ranked rikishi in banzuke in case there are at least two yokozuna on banzuke, see higashi yokozuna, sei

Nishonoseki, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead my moto-sekiwake Kongo, located in Sumida-ku

Nishonoseki, one of the five ichimon; increasingly often this particular ichimon is called Nishonoseki-Futagoyama due to increased influence by Futagoyama-beya

niyaku, unofficial collective term for the ranks of sekiwake and komusubi, compare with sanyaku, maegashira-joi

nobori, big colourful sheets flapping in the wind during honbasho outside the tournament venue; the shikona of all participating sekitori (?) and their heya are printed on these sheets

nodo-wa, pushing aite's throat with hand whose thumb is separated from the rest of the hand, compare with hansoku

nokoru, rikishi's effort trying to stay inside dohyo as long as virtually possible

nokotta, gyoji's encouraging yell to rikishi indicating they are both still in and should keep on wrestling, also yell by which gyoji expresses he has proven the tachiai, see hakke-yoi

Nomi no Sukune, see Sukune

noren, clothes suspended on top of entrance doors in kitchens and restaurants

nori, dried alga which is often used with sushi

nozokaseru, rikishi's failed attempt to get a solid sashi on his aite's mawashi and the resulting weak grip on aite's side

nuke-nuke, rikishi's record in honbasho following win-loss-win-loss etc. formula

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

oban, rice paper on which copies of banzuke and ebanzuke are printed

obi, belt of a kimono, see waziyashi

Odake, heya which is no longer active

Odake, myoseki which belongs to Taiho-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Oginohana, jun-toshiyori which belongs to Dewanoumi-beya, see oyakata

Oguruma, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-ozeki Kotokaze, located in Koto-ku

ofuro, bath (where tsukebito assist sekitori)

Ohashi, heya which is no longer active

Ohayo Nippon, NHK's morning broadcast which covers ozumo quite thoroughly during honbasho

oh-ichoh, see oh-ichoh-mage

oh-ichoh-mage, sekitori's and yumitori's hair-do resembling ginkgo leaf; worn in official occasions including torikumi; when fighting against juryo rikishi or in shokkiri also makushita ranked rikishi (and even lower ranked ones in shokkiri) can wear oh-ichoh-mage, see tokoyama, bintsuke, mage, chonmage, montsuki

oh-iri-bukuro, formal 10 yen fee to the employees of honbasho arena every time tournament day is sold out, see man-in onrei

Oikaze, earliest gyoji mentioned by name from May 1699; evidently used as an general term for a status equivalent to present rijicho

oiri manin fudadome, capacity all sold out

oiri onrei, thanking the audience for being full to capacity

Oita, prefecture

Oitekaze, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-maegashira (mai-me 2), located in Soka-shissń, prefecture of Saitama

oji-san, uncle or an elder man

okamisan, oyakata's (shisho's) wife who takes care of heya's errands and practical organising, virtually everything except the coaching of the rikishi; acts also as a mother figure to the young rikishi in the heya; okamisan's tasks can be taken care of by someone else than shisho's wife but that is very rare

okane, coin

Okayama, prefecture

Okido, heya which is no longer active

Okinawa, Japan's southernmost island quite far away from Japan's main islands; before WWII an independent state (?), nowadays prefecture

Okinawa-zumo

Okudaira, heya which is no longer active

okuri, pushing aite from behind, part of some kimarite

okuriashi, rikishi's step out while carrying aite over the tawara, not interpreted as isamiashi, compare with kabai-te

okuridashi, rear push out, kimarite in which the attacker will drive his opponent out from behind.

okurigake, rear leg trip, kimarite in which the attacker, having worked his way behind the defender, will hook one of his legs around one of the defender's legs. From this position, he will pull that hooked leg towards him, dropping his opponent forward and down. This technique can be done from either an inside or outside hooking position; one of the twelve techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion

okurihikiotoshi, rear pull down, kimarite in which the attacker has circled behind the defender. From any one of a number of gripping positions he will backpedal away from the defender, dragging him back and down; one of the twelve techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion

okurinage, rear throw down, kimarite in which the attacker has circled behind the defender. Standing behind the defender, using any one of several possible hand positions, he throws the defender forward and down or to the side and down. The key point to this technique is the attacker's position in relationship to the defender at the time of the throw; one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion

okuritaoshi, rear push down, kimarite in which the attacker forces his opponent down from behind with the match usually ending before the opponent is forced over the edge.

okuritsuridashi, rear lift out, kimarite in which the attacker has managed to circle around the defender. From any one of a number of possible grips, he will drop his hips, lift the defender up and carry him over the edge of the ring. Because both of the defender's feet are in the air, the attacker can cross the edge of the ring with one foot before the defender's feet cross over without losing the match; one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion

okuritsuriotoshi, rear lifting body slam, kimarite in which the attacker having circled around behind the defender will lift his opponent up using any one of several possible grips and then slam him down; one of the twelve techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion

Old Guy, The, old gentleman, antique shopkeeper Nakamura who always sits on the same seat during Fukuoka honbasho and is equipped with a Hinomaru fan; he lives along with torikumi so passionately that one often forgets whole torikumi while observing his enthusiasm and fan-waving

omata, thigh scooping body drop, kimarite in which the defender will attempt to block an overarm or underarm throw by taking a deep step forward with the foot furthest from the attacker's throwing arm. As the defender steps forward, the attacker will grab that leg from the inside with his free hand and lift it up and backwards. As he does this, he will drive his body into the defender's, forcing him over onto his back.

o-miai, arranging of marriage by nakoudo, see miai kekkon

omiyage-ya, souvenir shop

omiyage, souvenir

on, honourific prefix

Onaruto, heya which is no longer active

Onaruto, myoseki which belongs to Nakadachi-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo

o-nii-chan, big brother; moto-yokozuna Wakanohana III's nickname in media, see otooto-chan

onna-zumo, obscene "sumo" performed in brothels where prostitutes fought against each other or against blind men; absolute taboo in ozumo society

Onoue, myoseki which belongs to Taiho-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Onogawa, heya which is no longer active

Onogawa, myoseki which belongs to Kitanoumi-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo

Onomatsu, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-beya and is lead by moto-sekiwake Masurao, located in Narashino-shi

onsen, hot fountain

on wo kaesu, returning a favour (in a possible yaocho?)

on-yomi, Chinese reading of a kanji, see kun-yomi

oogata, gigantic rikishi

oomata, see omata

Osaka, prefecture

Osaka, the host city of March honbasho

Osaka Basho, honbasho in Osaka in March, see Haru Basho

Osaka-basho tanto bucho, see Ozeka-basho bucho

Osaka Furitsu Taiikukaikan, arena where the Osaka Basho is held in March; capacity 7474 spectators

Osaka Prefectural Gymnasium, English name for the venue of March honbasho

Osaka Sumo Kyokai, competing sumo organisation to kyokai in the early 1930's which faded away quite soon though, founded by sekiwake Tenryu who resigned from ozumo (despite persuation to stay from high profile people) after all the rikishi who followed him returned to Nihon Sumo Kyokai

osakate, backward twisting overarm throw, kimarite which would most commonly be seen at the edge, used by the attacker as he digs in. From a deep, standard outside grip, the attacker will bend backwards and swing his opponent around and out in the direction of that outside gripping hand; one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion

Osaka-Zumo

osamemono, see shizumemono

osandon-sumo, "kitchen sumo", historically torikumi held on the tenth and final honbasho day which weren't attended by the makuuchi division rikishi and could be spectated by women as well

oshi, pushing aite backwards maintaining hand contact at all times without having grip on aite's mawashi, part of many kimarite, see ottsuke, maesabaki ga ii, compare with tsuki

o-shibori, hot, moistened hand towel

oshidashi, frontal push out, kimarite in which the attacker pushes his aite out of the dohyo without gripping the mawashi. Unlike tsukidashi (frontal thrust out) the attacker must maintain hand contact at all times. One of the most common techniques in sumo and popular with tsuki/oshi (pushing/thrusting) specialists.

Oshima, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-ozeki Asahikuni, located in Sumida-ku

O-shin Keiko Soken, see soken

Oshiogawa, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-ozeki Daikiri, located in Sumida-ku; originally todori of Osaka-Zumo

oshiri, buttocks

oshitaoshi, frontal push down, kimarite similar to tsukitaoshi (frontal thrust down) this technique has the attacker pushing his aite backwards and then over.

oshi-zumo, sumo concentrated on various pushing techniques, often preferred by big, technically challenged rikishi who rely on their mass and power, compare with yotsu-zumo, namakura-yotsu

oshogatsu, see shogatsu

osu, v. to push, see oshi

osumo, see ozumo

osumo no uta, "sumo song", children's playful name for Kimigayo

osumo-san, sumo wrestler, rather unofficial term for rikishi, see sumotori

otoko, local rikishi; for example ozeki Kaio Hiroyuki is a Kyushu otoko since he is from Kyushu island and gets exceptionally enthusiastic support in November honbasho which is fought in Kyushu

otoko-geisha, expression meaning rikishi; emphazising his independence from his tanimachi and tomonokai

otoshi, falling aite to his side or stomach

otooto-chan, little brother; yokozuna Takanohana II's nickname in media, see o-nii-chan, also synonym to the following term

otooto-deshi, do-beya who has become into heya later, compare with ani-deshi

Otowayama, myoseki which belongs to Futagoyama-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

otsu

ottsuke, pushing aite's arm aimed at one's own armpit aside and upwards from the outside and simultaneously closing one's own armpit by pressing one's own arm firmly against the side; ottsuke is most efficient when aite's arm remains useless while the pushing of it makes also aite's centre of gravity rise, see oshi, maesabaki ga ii

oyaji, father, boss

oyaji-kusai

oyakata, one of the 105 (+2) coaches; there can be several oyakata in the same heya, see shisho, toshiyori-kabu, okamisan, ichidai toshiyori, riji, heya-mochi no oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata

-oyakata, suffix added to the names of the oyakata, see -sama, -chan, -zeki, -kun, -san

oyakoko, child's obligation to respect his or her parent, especially that of son towards his father; in the context of ozumo rikishi's obedience to his oyakata

Oyama, heya which is no longer active

Oyama, myoseki which belongs to Takasago-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

oyane, see tsuriyane

Ozeka-basho bucho, bucho responsible for Haru Basho in Osaka

ozeki, champion, second highest rank in ozumo; it is impossible to lose ozeki rank on the basis of the record in one honbasho, see kadoban, kunroku, sanyaku, yokozuna, sekiwake, komusubi, yokozuna-ozeki, hote

ozeki gojokai, yaocho arrangement allegedly active in 1980's where ozeki and yokozuna bought torikumi from lower ranked rikishi when they had a poor start in honbasho and lower ranked rikishi bought torikumi from each other so that no-one suffered too many losses; it is claimed that this arrangement was so common that certain person (moto-sekiwake Sakahoko, present Izutsu Oyakata) was needed to keep records of all the fixed torikumi, see chubon, mukiryoku

ozeki-kai, association of present and former ozeki

ozeki ni kano, formerly an expression for the winner of last torikumi of senshuraku no matter what the actual rank of the winner was, see kore yori san-yaku (ni gozari-masuru), yaku-zumo ni kano, sekiwake ni kano, komusubi ni kano

ozeki-tori

ozewake, humorous expression for sekiwake who repeatedly pursues promotion to ozeki but always fails, compare with sekizeki

ozumo, professional sumo wrestling, "grand sumo", Japan's national sport, nowadays ozumo is used to refer to six professional sumo divisions organised by kyokai

Ozumo Jinbutsu Daijiten, very thorough reference book listing every possible person in the ozumo community in 2001 published by a magazine called Baseball Magazine Sha

O-zumo Johsetsu-Kan, first ozumo arena built in 1909 to Ryogoku district in Tokyo, see Ryogoku Kokugikan, Josetsukan

Ozumo Kono Ichi Nen-kan, NHK's annual program summing up year's ozumo

Ozumo no Jiten, sumo dictionary published by Sawada Isshin in 1995

Ozumo Rikishi Meikan, large book where rikishi all the way from Meiji period are presentated, published yearly by Naofuni Mizuno and Toshiharu Kyosu

Ozumo Sumo An-naisho, twenty chaya of Kokugikan

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

pachinko, sort of a noisy flipper popular in Japan; also many rikishi like playing pachinko in their spare time

PORIZ

(prefecture), Japan's gubernatorial unit since 1871; when rikishi is introduced to the honbasho audience, his home prefecture (shusshin-chi) is often mentioned

puro-resu, Japanese professional wrestling resembling American WWF; some (not many) rikishi have continued or changed their career and gone to puro-resu, for instance controversial moto-yokozuna Futahaguro

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

Raiden, heya which is no longer active

Raiden Journal, see Shokoku Sumo Hikae-cho

rakken, seal pressed to a shikishi used to verify the genuineness of sekitori's tegata

raku, see rakujitsu

rakujitsu, the last day of honbasho, see senshuraku

raman

ramen

rei, bow towards dohyo by the hikae-rikishi coming to dohyo's higashi-kata or nishi-kata; performed before taking seat onto his basho-buton (in case of sekitori) to wait for his torikumi to take place

reigi, manners expected from each rikishi without an exception; taught to new deshi by the wakaimonogashira

reigi-sahou, etiquette

reigi-tadashii, correct manners

Reiyukai, Buddhish sect whose members include Hanada family of Futagoyama-beya

rekidai-rikishi, presumably synonym for yokozuna

rengo, term presumably meaning the same as ichimon, lit. union

rengogeiko, see ichimon-geiko

renpai, consecutive kuroboshi, compare with rensho

rensho, consecutive shiroboshi, record is yokozuna Futabayama's rensho of 69 shiroboshi during 1936-39, winning streak ended in a kuroboshi to the future yokozuna Akinoumi due to a mistake by gyoji, compare with renpai

renzoku ju ketsu

renzoku yusho, consecutive yusho

retsuden, biography

riji, nine (rijicho is tenth) oyakata who have demanding assignments in kyokai, compare with bucho

rijicho, chairman of rijikai and the whole kyokai, the leading figure of ozumo, nowadays Tokitsukaze Oyakata (moto-ozeki Yutakayama Katsuo)

rijikai, board leading kyokai formed by the riji

rikiryo, exceptional power on the dohyo, a yokozuna quality

rikishi, "strong man", professional sumo wrestler, see sumotori

rikishi-kai, association of the sekitori

rikishi-nobori, see nobori

rikishi no tamago, "wrestler eggs", old, playful name for young fresh rikishi

rin, tenth of a bu (approx. 0.3 mm), see sen, shaku, jyoo

Rin-Ko, era during 1973 - 1977 dominated by yokozuna Wajima and Kitanoumi, see Haku-Ho, Tochi-Waka, Ake-Taka, Kita-Tama, Ki-Rin, jidai

ritsurei, law, statute, legal codes of the Nara and Heian eras based on Chinese models

rokudanme, apparently very rare, historical sixth (seventh if counted according to current division system) division, see nidanme, sandanme, shidanme, godanme

romaji, Western writing style not used much in Japanese writing

ronin, masterless samurai from whom the use of shikona originates; nowadays ronin is a term for youngsters who haven't been accepted into a university etc. or who deliberately spend one year without studying

Ryogoku, part of Tokyo where Ryogoku Kokugikan is located

Ryogoku Kokugikan, main ozumo arena in Japan in Tokyo's southwest district Sumida-ku; taken into use in 1985, cost 10 billion yen to build, 13000 square metres, capacity of 11060 spectators; fourth of its kind; Hatsu Basho, Natsu Basho and Aki Basho are held there, see also Kuramae Kokugikan

ryo, old Japanese gold coin; also the basis of the name for ozumo's second highest division juryo (ten gold coins were the salary of a juryo division rikishi in old times), see jumaime

ryogoku-nantoka

ryokan, Japanese inn; rikishi specialized in cooking in heya sometimes open ryokan after haigyo, compare with izakaya, chanko-ya

ryou-maemawashitori, similar to mae-mawashi, see ryo-shitate, mae-mitsu

ryo mawashi wo totte no yori, style where rikishi takes two-handed grip on aite's mawashi and leads him backwards and out with yori; for example maegashira Hamanoshima prefers this style

ryome ga aita

ryo-shitate, getting both arms inside aite's arms; powerful position, see morozashi

ryo-sho

ryote o orosu, simultaneous touching of the dohyo with both hands by both rikishi at the end of shikinihairu where tachiai and torikumi itself are launched

ryouheika, Imperial couple

Ryugasaki-shi, part of Ibaraki where Shikihide-beya is located

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

saba, mackerel

sabaori, forward force down, a rare kimarite in which the attacker will have both hands on his aite's mawashi. As he pulls the defender in, he will throw his weight high into and on top of the defender. The force and weight applied will cause the defender's knees to buckle under him.

Sadogatake, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-yokozuna Kotozakura; located in Matsudo-shi

Saga, prefecture

sagari, braids suspended on dohyo mawashi symbolising prohibitation to grab the front side on the vertical part of mawashi; sekitori's sagari is stiffened with funori and there are always odd number of sagari, often 19 but this varies between 13-25 depending on the size of the rikishi; lately the amount has decreased closer to 15; rikishi often change new sagari on nakabi at the middle point of honbasho, see hansoku

sagaru, v. to hang, to suspend, see sagari

sai, rare (?) synonym for kaeri

sai-juryo, rikishi who returns to juryo division after having been fighting in the lower makushita division or even lower, see kaeri, compare with shin-juryo

saiko, see makuuchi saiko yusho

saiko-ichi, expression in use since February 1909 indicating the more prestigious status of yokozuna rank compared to ozeki but at the same time it can also be interpreted that yokozuna is merely an honourary title granted to a successful ozeki which has been the general view for a long time perhaps recent times excluded, compare with saikokyu

saikokyu, expression in use since February 1909 used to indicate ozeki rank being less prestigious than yokozuna; however ozeki rank maintained its status in principle for instance maintained the right to act as captain of his tozai side, compare with saiko-ichi

sai-nyumaku, rikishi who returns to makuuchi division after having been fighting in juryo or lower division, see kaeri, compare with shin-nyamaku

saishutsujo, return of a rikishi to a honbasho from which he already has once retired in order to, for example, win a decisive torikumi or several to, say, ensure he won't be demoted to a lower division

Saitama, home city of Minato-beya

Saitama, prefecture

Sai Yushu Rikishi Sho, annual reward to rikishi evaluated to have been the best rikishi of the year; granted by Hochi Shimbun magazine since 1958

sajiki-seki, see masu-seki

sajikiya, presumably a shop selling sajiki-seki tickets

Sakaigawa, heya which is no longer active

Sakaigawa, myoseki which belongs to Dewanoumi-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

sakaki, bushlike sacred tree in Shinto (Clereya japonica) whose branch is used somehow in the dohyo-biraki ceremony

sakatottari, arm bar throw counter, kimarite that is a counter to tottari (arm bar throw) usually seen at the tawara. As the rikishi attempting the technique frees the arm being barred, he will turn his hip closer to his aite's inward, forcing the aite to fall forward.

sake, rice wine, also salmon

sake de akarui, man who is good company during sake drinking session, perhaps on other occasions too

sakishibari

sakura, cherry blossom

-sama, suffix more formal than -san, see -chan, -zeki, -kun, -oyakata

samban-geiko, see sanban-geiko

samurai, warrior who belonged to military elite; some rikishi are still descendants of old samurai families, see ronin, bushido, katana, waziyashi

-san, suffix added to a name, closest equivalent expressions in English language would be sir/mr, madam/mrs, miss, see -sama, -chan, -zeki, -kun, -oyakata

sanban-geiko, series of multiple consecutive keiko torikumi between two rikishi

sanban shusse, rikishi candidates in the third round presentation of maezumo, compare with niban shusse and ichiban shusse; they wear borrowed kesho-mawashi for this presentation, the only time they are allowed to do so before being promoted to a sekitori rank

sanban-zumo, see sanban-geiko

sandan-gamae, rare ceremony perfomed on especially dignified occasions (such as the opening ceremony in the new Kokugikan) by two highest ranked rikishi and one gyoji

sandamme, see sandanme

sandanme, third lowest rank division of the six ozumo divisions; 200 rikishi

sandanme-kaku, gyoji officiating sandanme torikumi

Sangatsu Basho, honbasho in March, see Haru Basho

sangi-in, upper house of diet, see shugi-in

sankaisen, third round of those jungyo tournaments that are held in a cup format, see ikkaisen, nikaisen, jun-jun-kessho, jun-kessho, kessho-sen

Sanoyama, heya which is no longer active

Sanoyama, myoseki which belongs to Takasago-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

sanpachi, rikishi born in 1963

san-san

sansei

sansho, three awards granted to three well succeeded rikishi who are ranked below ozeki and have achieved kachi-koshi displaying sumo which entitles to any or even all three different sansho prizes; same sansho can be granted to more than one rikishi or on the other hand no one at all, see shukun-sho, kanto-sho, gino-sho

sanyaku, originally collective term for ozeki, sekiwake and komusubi but nowadays ozeki is often regarded as an especially prestigious rank and therefore not incorporated as part of sanyaku; on the other hand sanyaku is often used as a collective term for all ranks above maegashira (yokozuna, ozeki, sekiwake and komusubi), compare with yonyaku

sanyaku-kaku, gyoji who officiates makuuchi torikumi where at least one of the rikishi is ranked as komusubi or higher but only rarely a yokozuna; should tategyoji be unable to officiate torikumi where yokozuna wrestles sanyaku-kaku act as a substitute, see makuuchi-kaku, tategyoji, fukutategyoji

sanyaku soroibumi, ritual preceding the last three hon-wari torikumi where three higashi and three nishi side high ranked rikishi, yokozuna included, display series of simultaneous shiko together (both tozai sides separately on their turn) on the dohyo, see kore yori san-yaku, tozai, yaku-zumo ni kano

sashi

sashiage-te

sashi-chigae, overruling and reversing decision by shimpan against the original ruling of gyoji concerning torikumi's kekka; sashi-chigae is quite negative occasion to gyoji and sashi-chigae are intensively observed, compare with torinaoshi, gunbaidoori, see mono-ii, kyougi

sashikae, rikishi's dangerous attempt to change grip from uwate to sashi by taking his hand off the aite's mawashi and then rapidly slip his hand between aite's arms and under his armpit on his mawashi; risky move which requires speed, technical skill and good timing

sashi katta, rikishi's success in getting sashi against aite who has the same tokui-yotsu, compare with sashi maketa

sashi maketa, rikishi's failure in getting sashi against aite who has the same tokui-yotsu and gets his sashi instead, compare with sashi katta

sashimi, raw fish sliced into thin pieces

sashite, lower arm, hand under aite's arm holding the mawashi, see uwate, shitate

sashite-arasoi, intense struggle by two rikishi who favour different tokui-yotsu and are trying to get their preferred grips on their aite's mawashi

sasu, pursued grip on aite's mawashi so that one's own hand is on the inside of aite's defense, see morozashi, kannuki, hidariyotsu, migiyotsu

sato, sugar

saya, scabbard of sword

sechie-zumo, sumo performed at the ancient Japanese imperial court as both a religious function and a form of entertainment, see gomen fuda

sei, additional attribute to the rank of yaku-rikishi indicating it belongs to one of the two prime holders of the rank in question, compare with haridashi

seigen jikan, time allocated to shikkiri before the beginning of torikumi; basically the higher the division the longer the time allocated to shikkiri, see jikan-gakari shimpan, seigen jikan ga ippai ni natta

seigen jikan ga ippai ni natta, gesture by jikan-gakari shimpan indicating the end of seigen jikan

Seiryu, see ao-busa

seiseki, see taisen seiseki

seitai

sei-yokozuna, collective term for higashi yokozuna and nishi yokozuna, compare with haridashi yokozuna, see yokozuna-ozeki, sei

seiza, sitting position where one's legs are crossed under one's body; only this way it is possible to have four people on the massu-zeki seats

Sekinoto, heya which is no longer active

Sekinoto, myoseki which belongs to Dewanoumi-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

sekitori, rikishi who is at least of juryo rank; group of 66 elite wrestlers who get many privileges compared to lower ranked rikishi, see kesho-mawashi, akeni, -zeki, jumaime, dohyo-iri

sekiwake, third highest rikishi rank that can't be lost based on the results of a single honbasho, compare with sanyaku

sekiwake ni kano, old expression for the winner of second from last torikumi on senshuraku no matter what his real rank was, see kore yori san-yaku (ni gozari-masuru), yaku-zumo ni kano, komusubi ni kano, ozeki ni kano

sekizeki, humorous expression for ozeki who is constantly struggling to uphold his ozeki rank, see kunroku, kadoban, compare with ozewake

sempai, see senpai

sen, hundredth of yen

senaka, back

Sendagawa, myoseki which belongs to Kasugano-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo

Sendagawa, heya which is no longer active

sengoku jidai, era during which there aren't any clearly superior rikishi or even just one rikishi who would be dominating honbasho and who would certainly rise to the highest ranks eventually; for example the early years of 1990's when Chiyonofuji, Hokutoumi, Onokuni and Asahifuji were already declining and new upcoming stars Akebono and Takanohana weren't still ripe to make their breakthrough

(seniority)

senkyo

senpai, addressing name for older (in age or rank) rikishi, see ani-deshi, compare with kohai

senpo, senshu who fights first in the three member amateur sumo team, see taisho, chuken

senshu, amateur rikishi, sumotori; in larger context practioner of any sport, see Nihon Sumo Remmei

senshuraku, fifteenth and last day of honbasho, always Sunday, see tournament days

Senshuu Banzai Daidai Kanou, wish positioned at the left bottom corner of banzuke that no injuries would occur during the upcoming honbasho

sento, old expression for dohyo

seppuku, ritual suicide, see waziyashi

seri-agari, part of dohyo-iri where yokozuna rises from his crouch both palms pointed outwards (shiranui-gata) or left palm towards his torso and right palm outwards (unryu-gata)

Setsubun, February 3rd, last day of winter when Japanese have a custom of eating roasted soya beans exactly the same amount as is their current age counted with kazoe custom; during setsubun festivities rikishi symbolising power have a habit of throwing roasted soya beans to the audience; especially rikishi aged 24 or 36 (toshi otoko) are popular at this occasion

setta, leather soled sandals worn by the sekitori, see tabi, zori, compare with geta

sewagata, historical official who assisted heya participating in honbasho; probably present day sewanin is close to sewagata's task field, see torishimari, kensayaku, sodanyaku

sewanin, at most eight retired rikishi who belong to their own heya and who assist shisho, possible other oyakata and okamisan in the various tasks in heya; sewanin also act as assistants of wakaimonogashira for example during honbasho, jungyo and koen

Shakai-Fukushi Ozumo, annual charity ozumo tournament

shaku, Japanese unit of measure, foot (around 30 cm); in 1931 the diameter of dohyo was increased from 13 to 15 shaku, see rin, bu, sun, jyoo

Shashin-shuu Kirishima, 146-page photography collection book of Kirishima's career and life complementing Fumareta Mugi wa tsuyoku naru autobiography

-shi, suffix added to a name indicating something being official, but not really an honourific, see -sama, -chan, -zeki, -kun, -oyakata

Shibatayama, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-yokozuna Onokuni; located in Suginami-ku

shibugami, paper attached with tannic acid from kaki plum; used for stiffening akeni

shibusa, decorative knots in gyoji's costume

Shibuya, heya which is no longer active

Shichigatsu Basho, honbasho in July, see Nagoya Basho

shichimi, spice mix of seven peppers

shidanme, historical division; respective for present day jonidan

shide, more common term for the five zigzagging stripes hanging from tsuna symbolizing lightnings, see go-hei

Shiga, prefecture

shigin, historical singing style which is used by yobidashi when presenting the rikishi of next torikumi; shigin is also taught to rikishi

shihon-bashira, pillars supporting tsuriyane until September 1952; since 1858 those were decorated using same colors as busa are coloured nowadays, see aka-busa, ao-busa, kuro-busa, shiro-busa, mizuhikimaku, agemaki

shii-take, black breed of mushroom

shijuu-hatte, traditional 48 kimarite; nowadays there are 82 official kimarite, see sori-te, hineri-te, kake-waza, nage-waza, also isamiashi, koshikudake

Shikihide, heya which belongs to Tokitsukaze-ichimon and is lead by moto-komusubi Oshio; located in Ryugasaki-shi; the last heya which was originally set up by a gyoji, see Kise

Shikimori, less prestigious of the two gyoji schools; recognised by their way of holding gumbai palm facing upwards whereas the Kimura hold gumbai palm facing downwards, see Kimura Shonosuke, Shikimori Inosuke, compare with Kimura

Shikimori Hidejiro, official name of Shikihide-beya, see Kimura Sehei

Shikimori Inosuke, second highest ranked gyoji (fukutategyoji); purple & white shibusa knots are distinctive feature of Shikimori Inosuke, compare with Kimura Shonosuke

shikinihairu, rikishis' crouching at tachiai

shikiri, preparation preceding torikumi where rikishi try to attain psychological advantage over their aite, see niramiai, kiyome-jiro

shikiri-naoshi, way of fixing (in advance?) the shikiri, possibly to start torikumi exceptionally before the preparation time is up

shikiri-sen, two embedded enamel lines on the dohyo; rikishi crouch behind these during shikinihairu in preparation for tachiai; size 6*90 cm, distance from each other has been 70 cm since May 1970, earlier it was 60 cm in 1928-1970

shikiri-shiki

shikishi, square white rigid paper with golden borders on which tegata are pressed, see hanko, incon

shiko, basic leg training exercise which is very characteristical for sumo; rikishi raises his leg high to the side maintaining good posture and keeping his leg as straight as possible, then he stamps his foot on the ground (fumi) with force and continues to perform the same for the other leg; rikishi sometimes do shiko hundreds of times in a row; while performed on the dohyo the meaning of shiko is to chase away bad spirits off the dohyo, see teppo-oshi, suri-ashi, butsukari-geiko, matawari

Shikoku, one of the four main islands of Japan

shikona, rikishi's wrestling name; the custom of using a special shikona was inherited from ronin; often rikishi's shikona reflects his heya, place of birth etc. some way; also rikishi's myoji (real family name) can be his shikona but this is quite rare (ozeki Dejima uses his myoji and moto-yokozuna Wajima was another famous rikishi who fought under his real name)

Shiko Funjatta, a sumo themed film, lit. I made a shiko

Shikoroyama, heya which is no longer active

Shikoroyama, myoseki which belongs to Sadogatake-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Shimane, prefecture

shimekomi, silken mawashi of the sekitori

shimekomu, v. to fasten into

shime-nawa, rope hung in front of a holy place reminiscent of tsuna

shimmei, see shinmei

shimmei-zukuri, see shinmei

shimpan, oyakata sitting on the side of dohyo; one at each cardinal point plus the head judge shimpan bucho; they observe torikumi and if necessary call up kyougi by raising their hands (mono-ii), see shimpan-iin, naka-aratame

shimpan-bu, board of 23 members in charge of the shimpan

shimpan bucho, bucho responsible for the actions of shimpan, highest ranked shimpan who acts as the head judge during ko-han-sen, chairman of shimpan-bu, see mizu-iri niban-go torinaoshi, shimpan-iin

shimpanbu-fukubucho, see shimpan-fuku-bucho

shimpancho, see shimpan bucho

shimpan-fuku-bucho, two vice shimpan bucho who act as shimpan bucho at juryo division torikumi and during zen-han-sen

shimpan-iin, collective term for the five shimpan who all belong to heya in different ichimon, see nakairi, shobu shimpan

shin, adj. new; prefix; for example shin-yokozuna, rikishi participating in his first honbasho as yokozuna, compare with kaeri

shin-bo, tenaciousness, determination, ability to repeat monotonous exercises like shiko and teppo-oshi hundreds of times in a row

Shinbou no rireki-sho, moto-sekiwake Mitoizumi Masato's jiden published in 1998

shindeshi, maezumo rikishi waiting to be accepted to ozumo

shindeshi kensa, medical examination for deshi who are coming into ozumo

shin-gi-tai, three characteristics a rikishi should fulfill; shin - heart, gi - technique, tai - body

shini-tai, "dead body", rikishi unfortunate enough to be crushed by his aite while both rikishi fall simultaneously; also rikishi at the receiving end during torikumi, see kabai-te

shin jinrui yokozuna, nickname for moto-yokozuna Futahaguro referring to his unusual attitude towards keiko, the status of yokozuna and the whole way of kakkai

shinji-zumo, form of sumo performed even now in many national festivities during autumn; the purpose is to thank gods for good harvest

shin-jo, rikishi who has come up from maezumo to jonokuchi according to former system (?)

shinjo shusse hiro, occasion co-ordinated by wakaimonogashira where deshi who have been accepted to ozumo are presented to audience; they wear borrowed kesho-mawashi during this ceremony which takes place on nakabi (during Osaka Basho there are three occasions because March is the traditional month for entering ozumo)

shin-juryo, rikishi who wrestles in juryo division for the first time and hence becomes a new sekitori, see shin-nyumaku

shin-ki-tai, the earlier form of shin-gi-tai; emphasized mental strength (ki) of rikishi

Shinkokugikan, "new" Kokugikan, sumo arena in Tokyo introduced in 1985; term is used when referring to this particular Kokugikan; there has been three similar buildings before

shin-kon-basho, rikishi's first honbasho after his wedding

shinkyaku, matawari exercise where the other leg is as straight as possible and the other leg is bent

shin-maku, see shin-nyumaku

Shinmei, see Kiritsuma, Irimoya

shinmei, double edged roof structure of a shinto shrine; shape of tsuriyane has been emulating shinmei since 1931

shin-nyumaku, rikishi who wrestles in makuuchi division for the first time; he is unofficially informed about his promotion to makuuchi before the official banzuke is released, see sai-nyumaku, maegashira, shin-juryo

Shino-shi, district of Chiba where Onomatsu-beya is located

shin-ozeki, rikishi who wrestles the first time in honbasho as ozeki, compare with kaeri-ozeki

shinpan, see shimpan

shinri-teki yusaburi, see tsukkake

shin-sanyaku, rikishi who wrestles the first time in honbasho in sanyaku rank (as a komusubi or a sekiwake)

shin-sumo, project initiated by WASF for furthering women's sumo as part of plan to make amateur sumo an Olympic sport

shinto, Japan's native, animistic religion which has influenced ozumo strongly, see kannushi

shin-yokozuna, rikishi who wrestles the first time in honbasho as yokozuna

shio, salt, see kiyome-jiro, shio-kago

Shioire, "salt shaker", apparently a nickname of moto-sekiwake Mitoizumi

shio-iri, see kiyome-jiro

shio-kago, salt buckets stationed on two corners of dohyo, filled by yobidashi when needed

shiomaki, see kiyome-jiro

shirakeru, v. to get bored, reaction by audience due to uninteresting torikumi picks

Shiranui, myoseki which belongs to Oshiogawa-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata; originally historic todori of Osaka-Zumo

shiranui-gata, the less common one of the two different yokozuna dohyo-iri styles consisting of only offensive moves; paradoxically yokozuna Unryu was the first to perform yokozuna dohyo-iri like this; two loops of tsuna are characteristical to shiranui-gata, see unryu-gata, kanreki yokozuna dezuiri

shirasaya

shirataki, sort of a noodle

Shiratama, heya which is no longer active

Shiratama, myoseki which belongs to Sadogatake-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

shiriken

shiroboshi, "white star", mark drawn on hoshitorihyo indicating win in torikumi, see kuroboshi, kinboshi, ginboshi, yasumi

shiro-busa, white decorative knot (busa) that hangs above southwestern corner of dohyo symbolizing the white tiger Byakko and autumn, see aka-busa, kuro-busa, ao-busa

shirobusa-shita, southwestern corner of dohyo

shirosankaku, white triangle denoting an injury in hoshitorihyo

shisho, leading oyakata and the owner of heya; his name is the same as heya's, for example Futagoyama Oyakata and Futagoyama-beya; there can be even more than half dozen oyakata in one heya, everyone of them has his own myoseki and kabu but there can only be one shisho in a heya, see heya-mochi no oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata

shisho-kai, association of the shisho

shita-obi, official term for fundoshi

shitaku-beya, locker room for rikishi divided into western and eastern side, see tozai, higashi hanamichi, nishi hanamichi

shitate, grip on mawashi under aite's arm, see uwate, migiyotsu, hidariyotsu, sashite

shitatedashinage, pulling underarm throw, kimarite, a throw done from an inside grip on the mawashi. As the attacker turns away from his aite, he will pull him forward and down into the clay with that inside hand.

shitatehineri, twisting underarm throw, kimarite done from an inside grip, the attacker will twist his aite down into the clay, pulling him in the direction of the inside hand.

shitatenage, underarm throw, kimarite, one of the most common throwing techniques in sumo, the attacker will pull straight down with his inside, gripping hand as he turns away from his aite.

shizen-tai

shizumemono, lucky items buried into dohyo during the dohyo-matsuri ceremony; washed rice, nuts of Torreya nucifera tree, salt, alga, chestnuts and a calmar

Shizuoka, prefecture

sho, win in a torikumi, compare with hai, see shiroboshi

shobu, synonym for torikumi (?)

shobu, ozumo's nature as a competition sport as opposed to its ceremoniality and traditional, national and religious aspects, lit. victory or defeat

shobu-ari, gyoji's yell to rikishi indicating the end of torikumi

shobu-atta, see shobu-ari

shobu-dawara, outer border of the circular area on dohyo dedicated to torikumi itself which is formed by the tawara embedded in clay, see kado-dawara, fumi-dawara, janome, hyo, agedawara, joubu-dawara

shobu-kekka, result of a torikumi including both the name and tozai rank of winning rikishi and definition of the torikumi ending occasion which usually is one of the 82 kimarite but which can also be fujomake, kinji-te, isamiashi or koshikudake, see kimarite-gakari

shobu shimpan, collective term for the shimpan who sit on the sides of dohyo at any given time, see shimpan-iin

shobu shimpan kotai, change of shobu shimpan at nakairi

Sho-Chiku-Bai, three tier ranking system where sho (matsu, pine) is the highest, chiku (take, bamboo) is the middle and bai (ume, plum) is the lowest rank

shocho, see Sumo Kyoshujo Shocho

shodai, first generation, founder

Shogakukan, publisher of scandal magazine Shukan Post

shogatsu, New Year's Day, rikishi's day-off

shogun, warlords who ruled Japan for centuries; daimyo were vassals of the shogun

shokkiri, usually humorous display of different kimarite performed by two often physically quite different deshi during jungyo tours, see hana-zumo, kinji-te

Shokoku Sumo Hikae-cho, ozeki Raiden Tame'emon's famous diaries he wrote during his career 1789 - 1815

shokuji, meal

shokunin, rikishi who has been near the peak of banzuke for a long time

shomen, northern side of dohyo; Emperor's box is located here and very likely the TV cameras too, see mukou-jomen

shomen shimpan, see kita-kata shimpan

shonichi, opening day of honbasho, second Sunday of an odd numbered month or the first Sunday of July (although these are estimated days with few exceptions), see tournament days, shonichi o dasu

shonichi o dasu, achieving first shiroboshi in honbasho

Shonosuke, heya which is no longer active

sho-shin

shoto, see waziyashi

shouga, ginger

Shoowa, Emperor Hirohito's neng˘ (December 25th, 1926 - January 7th, 1989)

shoyu, soya souce

shozeki

shozoku, garment worn by the gyoji

shu, see shu-iro

shuban, last five days of honbasho, see tournament days, chuban, joban, senshuraku

shubansen, see shuban

shugi-in, lower house of diet, see sangi-in

shu-iro, vermillion (orangish) red; colour of most tegata since 1970's

Shujaku, see Suzaku

Shukan Post, Japanese weekly magazine concentrating on scandals; often writes about fictional and factual phenomena around ozumo; kyokai sued Shukan Post in 1996 due to Onaruto scandal

shukanshi

shukun no hoshi, points determining the winner(s) of shukun-sho gained by beating high ranked rikishi and/or rikishi who are firmly in arasoi

shukun-sho, outstanding performance award, one of the sansho prizes granted on senshuraku; usually given to rikishi who has beaten yokozuna or the winner of the honbasho and has himself been close to achieving yusho; lower ranked rikishi can also get shukun-sho even without facing the yokozuna or even ozeki if he in other way shows superior sumo compared to level usually expected from a rikishi of his rank, see sansho, kanto-sho, gino-sho

shumokuzori, bell hammer backwards body drop, kimarite which gets its name from its similarity in appearance to the shape of a Japanese wooden bell hammer. A variation of tasukizori (reverse backwards body drop), it also can be used during a heated tsuppari (slapping) exchange. The attacker will duck under the defender's lead arm and be caught half way through. In this technique, the defender will find himself draped over the attacker's body in a fireman's carry position. As the attacker lifts the defender up, he will take him over backwards. A sacrifice technique, the attacker will land on his back an instant after the defender is thrown over onto his.

shungiku, edible chrysanthemum

shunin, official in charge

Shunju-en Jiken, see Tenryu's case

shu-rei, motion of hand indicating gratitude or politeness, see rei, kokoro

shushin, amateur gyoji

shusse hiro, see shinjo shusse hiro

shusshin-chi, rikishi's official home prefecture which can be almost any prefecture irrespective of his real childhood home, see honseki(-ti), koseki

shutsujo, rikishi who has arrived to his torikumi, also rikishi who wins his torikumi with fusensho, compare with fusenpai, yasumi

Shyugiin, upper house of diet

SML, Sumo Mailing List, international email list covering sumo in English

soba, buckwheat noodles

Sobetsu Kitanoumi Kinenkan, museum covering the glorious career of yokozuna Kitanoumi located in Sobetsu; suffered damage caused by ash after eruption of volcano Usu in April 2000, see Kawayu Sumo Kinenkan

sodanyaku, an official who at one time assisted heya participating in honbasho, see torishimari, kensayaku, sewagata

sogo kikaku tanto bucho, bucho (office established in 2002) whose sphere of responsibilities consist of kyokai's relations to the audience and the rikishi

Sokagakkai, Buddhist sect lead by Daisaku Ikeda; evidently has up to twelve million members; some rikishi obviously were members too

soken, joint traning session for yaku-rikishi (including yokozuna) and maegashira-joi; observed by yokozuna shingi iinkai; since May 2000 soken has been open also to juryo division rikishi and even to twenty first makushita-joi; soken is free of charge for spectators and it is held before every Tokyo honbasho

sokubi, pressing aite downwards by placing hand or forearm on his neck; part of some kimarite

sokubiotoshi, head chop down, kimarite which becomes possible when the defender is caught leaning too far forward. The attacker will chop down with his wrist or forearm at the defender's neck or the back of his head, forcing him to touch down with one or two hands. Sokubiotoshi is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

sonkyo, silent and calm moment after keiko where rikishi relax their bodies and process the advice they got during keiko; also rikishi's squatting with straight back after shiko on dohyo and mental preparation for the upcoming tachiai and torikumi

soori-daijin, prime minister

soppu, see soppu-daki or soppu-gata

soppu-daki, one of the two basic styles of chankonabe; food substances are boiled in already flavoured soup without separate dipping sauce, see mizu-taki, chiri-nabe

soppu-gata, rikishi with rather lenient body with lots of muscles and relatively low percent of fat, compare with anko-gata

sori-te, twelve falling techniques of the original 48 kimarite (shijuu-hatte), see hineri-te, nage-waza, kake-waza

soroigushi

soto, move from outside to inside, part of some kimarite, compare with uchi

soto-dawara, four hyo on the dohyo (?)

sotogake, outside leg trip, kimarite in which as the attacker pulls his aite into him, he will hook aite's lead leg from the outside, driving him over backwards.

sotokomata, over thigh scooping body drop, kimarite in which as the defender steps forward, the attacker will grab that lead leg from the outside, over the top of the thigh. He will then lift the leg, driving his aite over backwards.

sotomuso, outer thigh propping twist down, kimarite in which the attacker will release his inside gripping hand and reach across the front of the defender's body to block, or prop, the defender's far leg. At the same time, he will lock up the defender's inside gripping arm while twisting his body into his opponent's. With the defender's far leg blocked from stepping forward, this forces him to fall over onto his back.

sototasukizori, outer reverse backwards body drop, kimarite which becomes possible when the defender has an inside grip. The attacker will bar that gripping arm across his own body. He will then reach over that barred arm with his free hand palm up, grabbing the defender's closest leg from the inside at the thigh. As the attacker pulls the leg up and over, the pain generated by barring one of the defender's arms will force him to touch down with his free hand.

soto-yotsu, disadvantageous situation rikishi faces when his aite gets morozashi on his mawashi, see kannuki, ai-yotsu, kenka-yotsu

sou-atari-sen, round robin system where each fights each in turn

souken, see soken

sou-kenbutu, see soken

Spo Nichi, Japanese daily sports magazine

ssirum, Korean wrestling style resembling sumo, see boke

su, vinegar

Sugawara-no-Michizane, see Dazaifu Temmangu

Suginami-ku, district of Tokyo where Hanaregoma- and Shibatayama-beya are located>

suikyo-shiki, first dohyo-iri of shin-yokozuna in Meiji-jingu

sukiabura, see bintsuke

suki ari

sukigushi

sukishi

sukui, grip under aite's armpit, see hazu

sukuinage, beltless arm throw, kimarite in which from an inside gripping position, the attacker will release that gripping hand, extend that inside arm across his aite's back as he turns away from him and pull the aite forward and down.

Sukune, mythical "father of sumo" who mortally wounded Kehaya in a bout set up by emperor Suinin 23 BC

sumai, violent early form of sumo

sumaibito, ancient expression for rikishi

sumai no sechie, apparently a synonym for sechie-zumo

Sumida, river flowing through Tokyo whose surface is said to reflect the sound of Kokugikan's yagura-daiko to a large area

Sumida-ku, district of Tokyo where Azumazeki-, Dewanoumi-, Hakkaku-, Hanakago-, Hatachiyama-, Izutsu-, Kasugano-, Kataonami-, Kokonoe-, Magaki-, Michinoku-, Mihogaseki-, Miyagino-, Nishonoseki-, Oshima-, Takekuma-, Tatsunami-, Tokitsukaze-, Tomozuna- and Wakamatsu-beya are located, see Ryogoku Kokugikan

sumi-riki

sumo, see ozumo

(sumoan), someone interested in sumo, see cyber rikishi

sumobaito

sumo-bu, sumo club

sumo-bugaku, expression once used for comparing the action of torikumi to a dance

sumo-daiko, small, high voiced, golded and lacquered nagado style taiko drum played with long bamboo sticks

sumodo, rikishis' general attitude towards life considered to be a modern adaptation of samurais' bushido traditions which included as essential parts for example unconditional loyality to authority, death despising courage and suffocation of emotional outbursts

sumo ga suki, way of wrestling by a rikishi who is incapable of making initiatives

Sumo Hakubutsukan Kancho, oyakata in charge of Kuramae Kokugikan

Sumo Hyakka, sumo themed encyclopaedia, possibly some particular volume

sumo-ji, see sumo moji, negishi-ryu

sumo jinku, songs sang by rikishi in sumo community's events; often songs are about the life of rikishi, see aaa-dosukoi-dosukoi(-to)

sumo-kai, ozumo community, see kakkai

Sumo Kaisho, predecessor of current Nihon Sumo Kyokai

sumo-kan

sumokan, big tournament hall devoted to sumo

sumokate

Sumo Kyogi Kansatsu Iinkai, sumo falsehoods observation committee, a body appointed to monitor yaocho

Sumo Kyoshujo Shocho, oyakata in charge of Kyoshujo

Sumo Kyujaku Rigosho, writing where detailed construction of dohyo sometime during Tensho era (1573-1591) is mentioned for the first time

sumo moji, style of writing the names of rikishi using exceptionally wide strokes of the brush; similar, although more roundish style (so called kantei-ryu) is used in the names of kabuki actors, see negishi-ryu

sumonin, word meaning rikishi, not in use presently

Sumo no Tomo no Kai, Association of Friends of Sumo, possibly in connection to tamari-kai

sumo otaku, person who follows ozumo passionately

sumo oukoku, "kingdom of sumo", expression used for Aomori prefecture

Sumo Sekai, monthly sumo magazine published at the beginning of last century by the rikishi themselves

Sumo Shinryo-sho, sumo clinic administered by kyokai

Sumoshi uraomote, book about the history of sumo; written by Kojima Teiji

sumotori, professional ozumo wrestler, often refers to sekitori but it can be used also for toriteki

Sumo World, English language magazine concentrating on ozumo; six issues per year

sumo wo toru, v. to do sumo

sumo-yakunin, earlier expression for gyoji

sumo zukasa

sun, tenth of a shaku, about 3 cm, see bu, rin, jyoo

sunakaburi, "covered by sand", six seat rows nearest the dohyo, see isu-seki, tachi-seki, tamari-seki, box seki, masu-seki, jiyu-seki, tamari-kai

suneburi, probable misspelling, see zubuneri

Suponichi

suppon, turtle with soft cell and nasty habit of sticking to its victims or animals attacking it, nickname for moto-ozeki Asahikuni (Oshima Oyakata)

suri-ashi, basic treading way of a rikishi; moving the feet on the dohyo attempting to keep soles and especially heels as low as possible in order to keep center of balance from rising; especially power of the big toes to press themselves against the dohyo is sought after; also part of the yokozuna dohyo-iri ceremony and a basic training method where a rikishi walks while bending his knees deeply; often done by several rikishi in a row where everyone leans against the do-beya in front of him, see deashi

surikogi, wooden pestle, probably used when preparing mochi

susoharai, rear footsweep, kimarite in which the attacker will use a pulling arm throw or arm grabbing force out attempt to work the defender into a position perpendicular to him. Having forced the defender's closest foot forward, the attacker will then sweep that foot from the rear, driving it even further forward. At the same time, he will pull the defender backwards, throwing him onto his side or back.

susotori, ankle pick, kimarite in which as the defender attempts a throw, the attacker reaches down and grabs the ankle of his aite's leg furthest from the defender's throwing arm. He then pulls that leg up and behind him while driving the defender over onto his back.

Suzaku, see aka-busa

Syouwa, see Shoowa

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

tabi, Japanese style sock where big toe is separated from rest of foot so that person who wears tabi could also wear geta; of the gyoji juryo-kaku and higher ranked are allowed to wear tabi

tachi, long sword (of a yokozuna?)

tachiai, rikishis' charge towards each other at the beginning of torikumi, see buchikamashi

tachiawase, meeting at the tachiai

tachimochi, "sword bearer", rikishi who participates in yokozuna dohyo-iri by holding revealed tachi; he walks behind yokozuna while they walk towards dohyo and is usually from yokozuna's heya or ichimon and is always higher ranked than tsuyuharai

tachimashita, see tachiai

tachimi, tickets which entitle the holder to standing places (of Kokugikan)

tachimiken

tachimi-seki, standing places (of Kokugikan)

tachi-seki, see tojitsu-ken

Tadaima-no kimarite wa <kimarite>. <Kimarite>te <rikishi>-no kachi!, public announcement after torikumi telling the shikona of winning rikishi (<rikishi>) and kimarite (<kimarite>) he used, see jonai hoso

Tagonoura, heya which belongs to Dewanoumi-ichimon and is lead by moto-maegashira (mai-me 1) Kushimaumi, located in Omiya in Saitama prefecture

Taiho, heya which belongs to Nishonoseki-ichimon and is lead by moto-yokozuna Taiho, located in Koto-ku

Taiho, one of the two ichidai toshiyori; possessed by dai-yokozuna of similar name, see Kitanoumi

taikai, gathering, smallish sumo event, see to-na-mento, basho, jungyo

taiko, drum played to invite people to watch tournament day's torikumi and also played as a request to spectators to leave when torikumi are finished

taiko-tachi, yokozuna Musashimaru's peculiar tachiai style

taiko-uchiwake, various playing styles of yagura-daiko and presentation of those styles, see hane-daiko, yose-daiko, ichiban-daiko, niban-daiko

tairan-zumo, see tenran-zumo

taisen, see torikumi

taisen-aite, aite in (a particular) torikumi

taisen seiseki, the combined results of two rikishi's mutual torikumi since the beginning of their careers

taisho, see waziyashi

taisho, senshu who fights last in the three member amateur sumo team, see senpo, chuken

taishoku, honourable retirement from kyokai after reaching the age of 65 or due to illness; sometimes (for instance Konishiki Yasokichi) for other reasons, compare with teinen, see haigyo, intai

Taishoo, neng˘ of Emperor Yoshihito (July 30th, 1912 - December 25th, 1926)

Taito-ku, see Daito-ku

Takadagawa, heya which is lead by moto-ozeki Maenoyama and is the only heya which doesn't belong to any ichimon, located in Edogawa-ku; originally todori of Osaka-Zumo

Takamimusubi no kami, one of three gods to whom a rikishi shows his appreciation after winning a torikumi, see Amenominakanushi no kami, Kamimusubi no kami, tegatana o kiru

Takasago, heya which belongs to Takasago-ichimon and is lead by moto-komusubi Fujinishiki, located in Daito-ku; originally todori of Osaka-Zumo

Takasago, one of the five ichimon

Takasaki, myoseki which belongs to Dewanoumi-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Takashima, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-sekiwake Koboyama, located in Edogawa-ku

take, bamboo

takegouri, bamboo travel luggage apparently used in the jungyo

Takekuma, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-sekiwake Kurohimeyama, located in Sumida-ku

Takemikazuchi, god who won the first sumo bout according to the legend and is said to be the founder of Imperial family

Takeminakata, god who lost to Takemikazuchi

Takenawa, myoseki which belongs to Oshiogawa-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho; originally todori of Osaka-Zumo, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

takenoko, bamboo shoots

Takeshima, heya which ceased to remain active at the end of 18th century and was located in Kumamoto

tako, octopus

takoyaki, cooked and barbequed "octopus meatballs", Japanese fast food

Takudai, Takushoku University

Tamagaki, heya which is no longer active

Tamagaki, myoseki which belongs to Tatsunami-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho

tamagoyaki, delicious omelett spiced with soya sauce and sugar

tamakushi

Tamanoi, heya which belongs to Dewanoumi-ichimon and is lead by moto-sekiwake Tochiazuma, located in Adachi-ku

tamari, southern side of dohyo where gyoji wait for their torikumi to take place, see gyoji-tamari

tamari-kai, regular holders of the sunakaburi seats nearest the dohyo

tamari-seki, another term for sunakaburi, six rows of seats closest to dohyo, see isu-seki, tachi-seki, box seki, masu-seki, jiyu-seki

tame, combination of fighting spirit, intensity and self confidence discharged at the tachiai

Tanigawa, heya which is no longer active

Tanigawa, myoseki which belongs to Hakkaku-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

tanimachi, influential persons sponsoring heya or rikishi, see tomonokai, koenkai

tanto, knife shorter than a shaku, see waziyashi, daito, shoto

tanuki, raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) which has magical powers according to folklore

taoshi, falling aite to his back or side, okuritaoshi being an exception

tasuki, string used for tying up the broad sleeve of kimono

tasukizori, reverse backwards body drop, kimarite whose name comes from the cord used to tie up kimono sleeves. During a heated tsuppari exchange, the attacker will duck under the defender's lead arm and find himself with his back turned to the defender's side. Grabbing the defender's lead arm with one hand and his back leg at the thigh from the inside with the other, the attacker will lean backwards. This motion will force the attacker to sacrifice his upright position but not before driving the defender over onto his side or back.

tataeshakai, custom of determining precise rank for each member covering the whole kakkai

tatami, mats worn at agari-zashiki etc.

tategyoji, two highest ranked gyoji who mostly officiate torikumi where at least one of the rikishi is a yokozuna; often term is used only for highest ranked gyoji Kimura Shonosuke as a distinction from fukutategyoji Shikimori Inosuke, see sanyaku-kaku

Tatekawa, heya which is no longer active

Tatekawa, myoseki which belongs to Kagamiyama-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

tatemae, absence of formal special characteristics of amateur sumo compared to ozumo, compare with honne

tate-mitsu, vertical part of mawashi on which grapping and pulling yields to instant kuroboshi in case it is on the front side (mae-tatemitsu); synonym maebukuro, see yoko-mitsu, mae-mitsu, mae-tatemitsu, ato-tatemitsu

Tateyama, heya which is no longer active

Tateyama, myoseki which belongs to Taiho-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

tateyobidashi, highest ranked yobidashi, see fukutateyobidashi

Tatsunami, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-komusubi Asahiyutaka, located in Sumida-ku

Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo, one of the five ichimon

Tatsutagawa, heya merged with Michinoku-beya in 2000

Tatsutayama, heya which is no longer active

Tatsutayama, myoseki which belongs to Izutsu-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

tattsuke-bakama, yobidashis' traditional costume which has wide pants under the knee level and whose back side acts as an advertisement space (fuku)tateyobidashi excluded

tawara, rice bundle embedded into the dohyo clay which form shobu-dawara; originally taxation related unit of measurement; rice container of approx. 72 litres (several other sizes exist), see toku-dawara, janome, fumi-dawara, kengamine, nijuudohyo

te, hand

tegata, rikishi's "signature", image of rikishi's palm printed on a special shikishi paper with red (or sometimes black) ink and his shikona painted with black ink; previously only black ink was used for the image of palm, see hanko, shu-iro

tegatana o kiru, special hand movement by winning rikishi of torikumi to express his gratitude to the three gods, see Amenominakanushi no kami, Takamimusubi no kami, Kamimusubi no kami

teinen, haigyo due to turning 65

teisei, correction to kimarite used in torikumi made afterwards based on video footage of the torikumi

temaki-zushi, sushi rolls in nori

ten-den bara-bara, onomatopoeic rhythm formation played with taiko drum in order to request spectators to leave the arena after torikumi are finished and come back on the following day, see hane-daiko

tenno, Emperor, see ko-taishi

tenno hai, see tenno-shihai

tenno-shihai, Emperor's cup weighing 35 kg given to winner of honbasho as a challenge trophy, donated by fresh Emperor Akihito in January 1927

tenran-zumo, sumo performed at the presence of Emperor, heir to the throne or foreign royalties; dohyo-iri ceremony is also different from usual (gozengakari), compare with joran-zumo

Tenryu Jiken, also known as Shunju-en Jiken, see Tenryu's case

Tenryu's case, rebellious movement at the beginning of the 1930's lead by sekiwake Tenryu against the leaders of kyokai; afterwards Tenryu became a very popular commentator, see besseki, Osaka Sumo Kyokai

tenteki, natural enemy or opponent, for example cats and dogs; in the context of ozumo rikishi who according to some criteria evolve to each other's natural enemies, for example because they start their careers at the same time or are promoted to high rank around the same time (Musashimaru and Takanonami) or are physically opposite types (Konishiki and Mainoumi) or are heyagashira of severely competing heya or sometimes media is eager to create tenteki relationship between some rikishi (Akebono and Takatoriki), compare with nigate

teppo, wooden pillar used in teppo-oshi embedded into keikoba

teppo-oshi, practise form mainly for arms, shoulders and wrists; embedded teppo is struck hundreds of times daily, see shiko, suri-ashi, butsukari-geiko, matawari

teppowaza, exceptionally strong two-handed morotsuki which is very difficult to do against an equal aite, compare with kata-teppo

Terao Tsunefumi, book about sekiwake Terao's life as a rikishi

teriyaki, soya based sauce where sugar, vinegar and spices are added

teuchi-shiki, ceremony held after torikumi and reward ceremonies at the last tournament day; new deshi who wear kesho-mawashi are welcomed into ozumo after having participated to their first honbasho, see shindeshi kensa, shinjo shusse hiro

te-yotsu, situation often occurring right after tachiai where both rikishi have a grip on their aite's opposite hands since both rikishi try to get as good grip on their aite's mawashi as possible, see tokui-yotsu

tobu, see henka

tochi, horse chestnut, traditionally part of Kasugano-beya rikishis' shikona

Tochigi, prefecture

Tochi-Waka, era during the 1950's dominated by yokozuna Tochinishiki and Wakanohana I, see Haku-Ho, Rin-Ko, Ake-Taka, Kita-Tama, Ki-Rin, jidai

tochu-kyujo, kyujo after honbasho has already started, compare with zen-kyu, kosho seido

todori, term for toshiyori-kabu inside Osaka-Zumo before Nihon Sumo Kyokai was founded; todori were Kagamiyama, Minato, Jimmaku, Mihogaseki, Takenawa, Asahiyama, Onogawa, Edagawa, Oshiogawa, Iwatomo, Tokitsukaze, Sendagawa, Takasago, Inagawa, Fujishima, Takadagawa, Nakamura, Onaruto, Araiwa, Shiranui, Kitajin and Nishiiwa

tofu, soya mix

toh, six-step ranking system of the tokoyama (5-toh, 4-toh, 3-toh, 2-toh, 1-toh and toku-1-toh); reaching highest rank (toku-1-toh) takes up to 45 years

tohka-me, tenth day of honbasho, see tournament days

Tohoku, northern part of Honshu where the longest jungyo in July-August reaches along with Hokkaido

tojitsu-ken, day-based tickets which can't be booked in advance, see isu-seki, tachi-seki, tamari-seki, box seki, masu-seki, jiyu-seki, sunakaburi

tokarashimiso, soup based on a plant reminiscent of aubergine (eggplant) offered by Sumo Kaisho to the rikishi during the honbasho

tokei-gakari shimpan, shimpan responsible for timing, see jikan-gakari shimpan

Tokitsukaze, heya which belongs to Tokitsukaze-ichimon and is lead by moto-komusubi Futatsuryu, located in Sumida-ku; originally todori of Osaka-Zumo

Tokitsukaze, one of five ichimon

Tokiwayama, heya which is no longer active

Tokiwayama, myoseki which belongs to Hanaregoma-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

tokkurinage, two handed head twist down, kimarite, as the defender is leaning forward, the attacker will grab his head or neck with both hands. From this position, he will twist the defender down and over onto his back. This technique was also called gasshohineri but that name is now used to describe a variation of tokkurinage; one of the twelve techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

to-kon, fighting spirit, see tame

tokoyama, hairdresser who makes rikishis' hair-do (oh-ichoh-mage and chonmage); they have their own ranking system (toh) and belong to heya just like rikishi; there are about 50 tokoyama, see minarai

tokubetsu teate, special travelling allowance paid to yaku-rikishi each honbasho according to their rank; nominal amount hasn't been raised since the introduction in 1961

toku-dawara, four dohyo enlargements at the nominal cardinal directions created by placing four of the sixteen hyo forming the tawara slightly backwards from the neighbouring ones; originally used by the rikishi and gyoji to move onto and from dohyo and to let water flow from the dohyo

Tokugawa, shogunate which ruled Japan from the beginning of 17th century to the middle of 19th century

tokui-yotsu, rikishi's favourite grip on his aite's mawashi, see hidariyotsu, migiyotsu, namakura-yotsu

Tokushima, prefecture

Tokyo, capital of Japan, host city of Hatsu Basho, Natsu Basho and Aki Basho, see Edo, Ryogoku, Kokugikan

Tokyo, prefecture

Tokyo-dai-kuusyuu, large bombings on March 10th, 1945 in Tokyo during which maegashira Matsuragata and Toyoshima were killed

Tokyonodai, university of agriculture and forestry in Tokyo; traditionally with a very good amateur sumo team from which many senshu have moved up to ozumo starting at makushita tsukedashi rank

Tokyo-Zumo

Tomagashima, heya which is no longer active

tomebasami, final cutting of sekitori's oh-ichoh-mage in danpatsu-shiki performed by oyakata (shisho) with gold plated scissors

Tomioka Hachimangu, temple in Koto-ku in Tokyo in the Fukagawa area where a stone structure of 3.5 meters and 20 tons, on which shikona of yokozuna, shusshin-chi and the dates of promotion to yokozuna are carved, is located; yokozuna Jinmaku erected the original stone with the financial help of political elite and economic life in 1900; two more stone structures were erected in 1983 when the old one became full last yokozuna carved being Wakanohana II, see Mantoku-in

tomoe-sen, kettei-sen with three rikishi participating, torikumi order is casted, see wakaimonogashira

tomonokai, joint group of heya's supporters, fanclub, see goshugi, compare with koenkai

Tomozuna, heya which belongs to Tatsunami-Isegahama Rengo and is lead by moto-sekiwake, located in Sumida-ku

to-na-mento, tournament, smaller sumo event than jungyo, see taikai

tonkatsu, pork cutlet, see katsu

torikoboshi, losing torikumi to a lower ranked rikishi, especially sanyaku ranked rikishi's loss to maegashira, see kuroboshi, ureshii-hoshi, ginboshi, kinboshi

torikumi, sumo bout, also used inaccurately for the program of whole tournament day, see torikumi-hyo, taisen seiseki

torikumi hensei iinkai, kyokai's body in charge of devising the coming honbasho days' bout schedule

torikumi hensei kaigi, meeting of torikumi hensei iinkai where torikumi-hyo of next day or days is drawn up

torikumi hensei yoryo, rules concering determination of torikumi opponents but which don't include a rule preventing torikumi between relatives although it is valid as a traditional unwritten rule, see heya-betsu so-atari, ichimon-betsu so-atari, kojin-betsu so-atari, Futa factor, Magaki effect

torikumi-hyo, torikumi program of tournament day, see kekka

torinaoshi, rematch which is fought if it is impossible to be certain of kekka of first torikumi, see kyougi, mono-ii, gunbaidoori, sashi-chigae, itami-wake, dotai

torishimari, historical tournament manager who was responsible for fluent function of honbasho, see sodanyaku, kensayaku, sewagata

toriteki, rikishi, including shindeshi, who are lower ranked than juryo, compare with deshi, see wakaishu

toshi otoko, bean scatterer; see Setsubun

toshiyori, elder, trustee, oyakata

toshiyori-kabu, one of the 105 coaching licenses which sekitori can buy or inherit from his father or father-in-law, see kari-kabu, compare with jun-toshiyori

toshiyori-mei, right to use the name of an oyakata; part of possessing myoseki

toshiyori myoseki shosho, document authenticating the ownership of a myoseki

tottari, arm bar throw, kimarite which often develops from a pushing/thrusting exchange. The attacker will grab one of his aite's arms, usually at the wrist as he turns parallel to him. His free arm will then wrap around that arm from below. He will then bar it across his stomach or chest, forcing the aite forward and down.

Tottori, prefecture

toudori, see todori

tournament days, fifteen tournament days of a honbasho are named as follows:

Joban Chuban Shuban
Days 1-5 Days 6-10 Days 11 -15
1. Shonichi 6. Muika-me 11. Juichinichi-me
2. Futsuka-me 7. Nanoka-me 12. Juninichi-me
3. Mikka-me 8. Yohka-me (Nakabi) 13. Jusannichi-me
4. Yokka-me 9. Kokonoka-me 14. Juyokka-me
5. Itsuka-me 10. Tohka-me 15. Senshuraku

Touzai-sei, see tozai

toya, caretaker in charge of shinto shrine

Toyama, prefecture

Toyodai

tozai, custom of dividing rikishi into east and west side east being the more prestigious, until 1931 the amount of higashi (east) and nishi (west) rikishi was always equal in honbasho, nowadays it is possible that there are two higashi rikishi more than nishi rikishi in the makuuchi division, see haridashi, sei, mai-me, shitaku-beya, dohyo-iri, hidari-gata, migi-gata

Tozaikai

tsuge, tree species of which hanko seals are usually made of

tsujizumo

tsuka, handle of sword

tsukami, holding aite's arms with hands

tsukaminage, lifting throw, kimarite in which the attacker, from an outside grip, will pull his aite past him. As he completes the pull, he will heave the defender up into the air and drive him into the clay. Where almost all throwing motions in sumo are right to left or left to right, this technique's motion is always right to right or left to left.

tsukebito, assistant/servant of sekitori or juryo-kaku or higher ranked gyoji; toriteki from same heya act as tsukebito taking care of routine tasks like carrying akeni, taking care of mawashi, tying tsuna etc; yokozuna can have from four to even eleven tsukebito

tsukedashi, see makushita tsukedashi

tsuki, pushing aite backwards without maintaining hand contact at all times, compare with oshi

tsukibou, clubs with wooden weights on them, used to thump the dohyo in shape, see Asahi

tsukidashi, frontal thrust out, kimarite, one of the most common pushing/thrusting techniques in sumo. The attacker will drive his aite backwards and over the tawara with a rhythmical thrusting motion. Unlike oshidashi (frontal push out) the attacker does not have to maintain hand contact at all times.

tsukihanashi, powerful tsuki forcing aite fly off the dohyo, see morotsuki, teppo, kata-teppo

tsukihiza, knee touch down, one of five situations where a rikishi loses a torikumi without any initiative from his aite; also literally the knee touching dohyo thus resulting in a kuroboshi; recorded outside official listing of winning techniques and was introduced with the 2001 winning technique list expansion, compare with tsukite, koshikudake, kabai-te, fumidashi, isamiashi, see hakite

tsukiji, fish wholesale place in Tokyo where chanko-ban might buy big amount of fish and other sea products to be used in chankonabe

tsuki-kaesu, defensive method against tsuki, pushing aite's extended arms upwards from below

tsuki-oshi ni tessuru, one dimensional fighting style concentrating only on pushing moves

tsukiotoshi, thrust down, kimarite in which the attacker will drive his aite down into the clay with a thrusting motion after placing his open hand on the aite's upper rib cage or at his shoulder. Often used as a last ditch effort at the tawara.

tsukitaoshi, frontal thrust down, kimarite which is most commonly seen after the attacker has won a heated slapping (tsuppari) exchange. At the finish of that exchange, the aite's hips are to far forward and the attacker is able to thrust him over onto his back or side.

tsukite, hand touch down, one of five situations where a rikishi loses a torikumi without any initiative from his aite; also literally the hand touching dohyo thus resulting in a kuroboshi; recorded outside official listing of winning techniques and was introduced with the 2001 winning technique list expansion, compare with tsukihiza, koshikudake, kabai-te, fumidashi, isamiashi, see hakite

tsuki-yasui, rikishi vulnerable to tsuki

tsukkake, disturbing aite's peace of mind and concentration during shikkiri by conducting in a somewhat unusual yet legimitate way, for example trying to begin torikumi already at the first shikinihairu

tsuku, v. to push, see tsuki

Tsukuba Gakuen, area from where clay proper for dohyo is gotten, located in Ibaraki prefecture, see Arakawa, Arakida

tsuma, toe

tsumatori, rear toe pick, kimarite which becomes possible when the attacker has worked his way to the side of his aite as that aite is moving forward. As the defender picks up the foot closest to the attacker, the attacker will reach down, grabbing that foot at the toes and pull it back and up. This, coupled with the defender's own momentum, will force him to fall forward. Tsumatori was originally referred to as rear ankle pick in English but the technique definition was changed during the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

tsumire, meatball, fishball

tsuna, yokozuna's ceremonial almost four metres long belt weighing about 15 kg; made out of hemp fiber, covered with cotton and wound around a copper cable; five zigzag formed shide ribbons hang from tsuna, see shime-nawa, tsunauchi-shiki, shiranui-gata, unryu-gata

tsuna-biki, tug of war, one of the numbers of undokai

tsunashime, putting tsuna on

tsuna-dori, ozeki who is regarded to have a possibility to clinch his promotion to yokozuna in the next honbasho; possibly the promotion itself as well

tsunauchi-shiki, preparation ceremony of tsuna three times a year in each yokozuna's heya before a honbasho in Tokyo begins; surplus part of tsuna is given away to protect women giving birth as a charm, see hachimaki

tsuno kakushi, hanayome's traditional headgear

tsuppari, rapid and furious short pushes to aite's face and upper torso using alternating open handed pushes, see oshi, tsuki, nodo-wa, harite, uwa-tsuppari

tsupparu, v. to push, see tsuppari

tsuri, lifting aite and carrying him over the tawara with a grip on aite's mawashi or arms, part of some kimarite

tsuridashi, lift out, kimarite, a power technique that can be done from either a single or double inside grip. Occasionally, it is even seen from a double outside grip. The attacker will take hold of the aite's mawashi, drop his hips and heave his aite into the air, lifting him over and out of the ring.

tsuriotoshi, lifting body slam, kimarite, a power technique only possible when there is a pronounced gap in strength and skill between the attacker and defender. Like tsuridashi (lift out) the attacker will drop his hips while pulling the defender in, then lift him up into the air. In this technique, rather than deposit his aite outside the ring, the attacker will swing him sideways and drive him into the clay.

tsuriyane, structure hung above dohyo resembling a roof of shinto shrine; made of aluminum, cedar, pine and zeikova, weighs about six tons and is attached on the roof with two inch-thick cables, see busa, man-in onrei, mizuhikimaku, agemaki, shihon-bashira

tsuri-yori

tsuru, v. to lift (with two-handed mawashi grip), see tsuri

tsuru, string of bow given to winning rikishi of penultimate torikumi on senshuraku, see ya, yumi, kore yori san-yaku (ni gozari-masuru), yaku-zumo ni kano

tsutaezori, underarm forward body drop, kimarite in which the attacker will dive under one of the defender's arms while maintaining a grip on that arm. Leaning back and into the defender, he will force him to fall forward and touch down with his free hand; one of the twelve techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

tsuugonomi

tsuya, wake, see kokubetsu-shiki

tsuyoi, strong, see genki, compare with yowai

tsuyuharai, "dew sweeper", sort of a herald, rikishi who participates in yokozuna dohyo-iri ceremony, walks in front of yokozuna as they approach the dohyo, comes from the same heya or ichimon as yokozuna and is always of lower rank than tachimochi

tyankonabe, see chankonabe

tyonmage, see chonmage

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

uchi, technique "from the inside", for example kimarite uchigake & uchimuso, compare with soto

uchiage, party held in heya after honbasho

uchidashi, conclusion of a ozumo presentatition

uchi-dawara, sixteen hyo of which shobu-dawara is formed in addition to toku-dawara

uchidome, see musubi-no-ichiban

uchigake, inside leg trip, kimarite in which as the attacker pulls his aite forward, he will hook the aite's lead leg from the inside; hooking right leg to left leg or left to right. He will then pull the aite's leg out from under him, pulling with a circular motion, as he drives him over onto his back.

uchikaeshi, partial rebuilding of the dohyo on Kokugikan when a new honbasho is about to begin; on other honbasho venues the whole dohyo ia always built anew

uchimaku, synonym for makuuchi

uchimuso, inner thigh propping twist down, kimarite which can be done from either an inside or outside grip. The attacker will sweep one of the defender's legs up by hitting the inner thigh with the back of his free hand. As that hand makes contact with the aite's thigh, he will pull with his other hand in the same direction as the sweeping hand.

uchi-no, prefix added in front of heya's ozeki or yokozuna unless there are more than one of either when suffix zeki is used; for example in Azumazeki-beya Akebono was referred as uchi-no yokozuna since he was the only yokozuna of the heya whereas in Futagoyama-beya Wakanohana and Takanohana were called as Wakanohana-zeki and Takanohana-zeki since term uchi-no yokozuna didn't clarify which one was referred to

uchitsukazu, tournament record with no losses, see zensho yusho

uchiwa, fan, see gumbai

udehineri, evidently synonym for kainahineri

udetate, push-up exercise

ude-zumo, arm wrestling; rikishis' exhibition sport in charity events etc.

udon, white wheat noodle especially popular in southern Japan

ukiyoe, Japanese drawing style popular in 18th and 19th centuries used also to depict many rikishi of that time

umeboshi, dried plums (possibly in vinegar)

Umegatani, heya which is no longer active

Umike, family from Ise who had the sole right to set up the yagura

Umi wo koetekita chikara-bito, book about Hawaiian rikishi written by Okada Terufusa, English translation Strong Men Who Crossed The Ocean

unagi, eel

undokai, annual playful costume party organised by rikishi-kai

unisono

unma

unryu-gata, the more common one of the two different yokozuna dohyo-iri styles consisting of both offensive and defensive moves; paradoxically yokozuna Shiranui was the first to perform yokozuna dohyo-iri like this; one loop of tsuna is characteristical to unryu-gata, see shiranui-gata, kanreki yokozuna dezuiri

Urakaze, heya which is no longer active

Urakaze, myoseki which belongs to Kiriyama-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

ureshii-hoshi, exceptionally pleasing shiroboshi, for example the eight (or fourth in lower divisions) shiroboshi of honbasho which guarantees kachi-koshi or shiroboshi which guarantees kakuage or even yusho, see mechakucha ureshii, torikoboshi, ginboshi, kinboshi

urushi, lacquer laid on the surface of the taiko drums and the akeni

ushiromotare, backward lean out, kimarite that becomes possible when the defender has managed to circle behind the attacker, usually at the edge of the ring. From this position the attacker will lean into his aite, forcing him back and over the tawara or back and down. Ushiromotare is one of the twelve techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

utchari, backward pivot throw, rare and spectacular kimarite used as a last ditch effort to win after the attacker has been driven to the tawara. Before he can be forced out, the attacker will drop his hips while pulling the defender up and past him. In executing this technique, the attacker is quite often forced clean over onto his back. The only thing that earns him the shiroboshi is the twisting motion of his hips, which often forces his aite to touch down a fraction of a second before he does.

uwate, grip on aite's mawashi over his arm, see shitate, sashite, migiyotsu, hidariyotsu

uwatedashinage, pulling overarm throw, kimarite done from an outside grip, the attacker will pull his aite forward and down as he turns away from aite. The major difference between this technique and uwatenage is that forward pull.

uwatehineri, twisting overarm throw, kimarite done from an outside grip. The technique is done by twisting the aite in the direction of that outside hand. It is commonly seen when the aite is conciously defending against an uwatenage because this throw has the attacker taking the defender in the opposite direction from uwatehineri.

uwatenage, overarm throw, one of the most common kimarite in which the attacker, from an outside grip, will throw his aite into the clay by heaving him down at a sharp angle as he turns away from that opponent.

uwa-tsuppari, tsuppari which raises aite's centre of gravity

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

Wakafuji, heya which is no longer active

Wakafuji, myoseki which belongs to Isegahama-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

wakaimon, common pronounciation form for wakaimono

wakaimono, makushita or lower ranked (young) rikishi, see wakaishu, toriteki, deshi

wakaimonogashira, at most eight functionaries of kyokai, often former makushita rikishi and nowadays more often former sekitori who practise deshi at their heya and ichimon, arrange maezumo torikumi with the help of sewanin before the jonokuchi torikumi begin and kettei-sen and tomoe-sen castings

wakaishu, rikishi lower ranked than juryo, see toriteki, deshi

Wakamatsu, heya which belongs to Takasago-ichimon and is lead by moto-ozeki Asashio, located in Sumida-ku

wakame, fresh alga which is used on miso based soups

Wakayama, prefecture

wakeh-mon, common pronounciation form for wakaimono

waki ga amai, side of the body

waki ga katai, see waki ga amai

wakizashi, samurai's short curved sword carried by the tategyoji under their obi in order to be able to perform seppuku should they disgrace their rank, see daito, tanto

wanpaku-yokozuna, wanpaku-zumo champion

wanpaku-zumo, children's mutual sumo, compare with kodomo-zumo

wari, tying aite's upper arm, part of some kimarite

wari, daily program included in the price of honbasho ticket

wariba

wari-bure

waridashi, upper-arm force out, rarely seen kimarite which requires a pronounced gap in strength between the attacker and the defender. It can be done from either an inside or outside grip. With his free hand, the attacker would grab the defender's arm at the biceps and, while pushing on that arm, drive the defender back and out.

wasabi, green radish powder, horse radish

WASF, see World Amateur Sumo Federation

washi, japanese paper of which moto-yui is made, see kaobure

watashi, rikishi's, who is pushing his aite backwards with yori, grip change from uwate to a grip of aite's back of the knee, see ashi-barai

watashikomi, thigh grabbing push down, kimarite which is usually done near the end of a yorikiri (force out) attack. As the attacker drives his aite to the edge, he will release his outside gripping hand and slide it down to grab the defender's leg at the hamstring or behind the knee. As he continues his forward drive, the attacker will pull that leg towards him, forcing the defender either over the edge or onto his back.

waza, collective term for all the kimarite and other techniques used during a torikumi

waza no depato, "department store of the waza", nickname of brilliant technician, moto-komusubi Mainoumi

World Amateur Sumo Federation

Worufo to yobareta otoka, moto-yokozuna Chiyonofuji's autobiography; The Man They Called Wolf; apparently not translated

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

ya, arrow of which kind two are given to the winner of third from last torikumi at senshuraku, see yumi, tsuru, kore yori san-yaku (ni gozari-masuru), yaku-zumo ni kano

yachin ga takai, rikishi who is ranked higher in banzuke than his abilities would justify and who with high probability suffers a make-koshi in the next honbasho

yagura, approximately of 16 metre height tower made out of steel nowadays, formerly of cedar logs without nails; on the side of the tower the effective banzuke (so called ita-banzuke) is hung; on top of the tower there is taiko drum used to invite people to arrive at the arena to watch the daily bouts, see nobori, Sumida, yose-daiko, hane-daiko, ichiban-daiko, niban-daiko

yagura-daiko, taiko drum on top of yagura

yaguranage, inner thigh throw, kimarite which can be done from either an inside or outside grip. As the attacker pulls his aite into him, he will drop his hips and place the outside of his knee against the defender's inner thigh. As the attacker starts the throwing motion with the hand on the same side of the leg touching the defender's thigh, he will drive that leg upwards. This, combined with the throwing motion of the attacker's hands, will force the defender over onto his side.

yakata, see tsuriyane

yakiniku, fried or grilled meat

yakitori, grilled broiler; common snack in ozumo audience

yaki-torikumi

yakuin, (kyokai) official

yakuin-taigu

yakura, see yagura

yaku-rikishi, sanyaku ranked rikishi including yokozuna, compare with hiramaku

yakuza, Japanese mafia, organised crime; also one individual gangster; yakuza's involvement in gambling activity is said to have had some link to ozumo too at some point

yakuzumo, often synonym for sanyaku although the more correct interpretation would be torikumi (especially kore yori san-yaku torikumi) where at least one rikishi is yaku-rikishi

yaku-zumo ni kano, awards given to the winners of the last three torikumi after sanyaku soroibumi; also used as a term for winner of those bouts; the winner of komusubi torikumi gets two arrows (ya), the winner of sekiwake torikumi gets string of a bow (tsuru) and the winner of ozeki torikumi (last torikumi of honbasho) gets a bow (yumi), see kore yori san-yaku (ni gozari-masuru), komusubi ni kano, sekiwake ni kano, ozeki ni kano

Yakyukai

Yamagata, prefecture

yama-geiko, keiko done outdoors

Yamaguchi, prefecture

Yamahibiki, myoseki which belongs to Futagoyama-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Yamanashi, hometown of Hanakago-beya

Yamanashi, prefecture

Yamashina, heya which is no longer active

Yamashina, myoseki which belongs to Dewanoumi-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

Yamawaki, heya which is no longer active

Yamawaki, myoseki which belongs to Tamanoi-beya but for now doesn't belong to any shisho, see oyakata, heya-tsuki no oyakata, heya-mochi no oyakata

yaocho, fixed torikumi; also used implying to the large scale arranging of the results of torikumi all the way up to yusho deciding bouts; very controversial phenomenon and is said to have been quite common at some eras in sumo's history, see gachinko, chubon, mukiryoku, chusha, kata-yaocho

yaocho-zumo, see yaocho

yasotobi, rare jump upwards at the tachiai by a rikishi attempting to surprise his forward leaning charging aite, when the move works it is a real crowd-pleaser and spectacular way of winning; the originator of the term was moto-yokozuna Wakanohana I who used it in a form hassou-tobi, see keren-zumo

Yasukuni, due to militaristic connections a controversial shrine whose area was used for temporary honbasho arena during 1917-1920 after the original Kokugikan had been destroyed in a fire and the second was not yet finished, see kozumo

yasumi, v. to rest, marking made on hoshitorihyo on days when rikishi is not competing in honbasho due to kyujo, see shiroboshi, kuroboshi, kinboshi, ginboshi, shutsujo, tochu-kyujo, zen-kyu, kosho seido

Yatsugamine, heya active at the beginning of 19th century

yen, Japanese monetary unit, subdivided into 100 sen

yobidashi, functionaries who have had their names on the banzuke since Nagoya Basho 1994; they belong to their own heya and have various tasks in ozumo for example the following ones: building dohyo, preparing and fixing it between torikumi, announcing the possible kensho-kin offered for the upcoming bout, singing with trained voice the shikona of the rikishi of the next bout before they enter the dohyo and informing rikishi the end of seigen jikan; the amount of yobidashi is fixed to be 45 at most (42 at the moment), see seniority, tateyobidashi, fukutateyobidashi

yobidashi beya, locker and waiting room of yobidashi (in Kokugikan)

yobimodoshi, pulling body slam, kimarite which is one of sumo's power techniques and is only seen when there is a pronounced gap in strength between the attacker and the defender. The attacker will pull the defender in the direction of the attacker's inside grip. Then, using the defender's reaction against that pull, he will release his inside grip, turn his palm down, and take the defender in the other direction heaving him clean off his feet.

yochumata, ceremonial driving out the evil spirits from the dohyo by doing shiko before each torikumi begins

yohka-me, see nakabi

yohka-me nakabi, see nakabi

Yoi, Hakkeyoi, see hakke-yoi

"yoisho", audience's cries of encouragement to yokozuna when he does the shiko during dohyo-iri, see yochumata

yokka-me, fourth day of a honbasho, see tournament days

yoko-mitsu, horizontal part of mawashi on the sides; best part of mawashi to launch throwing techniques, see tate-mitsu, mae-mitsu

yoko-nimai

Yoko-Shin, see Yokozuna Shingi Iinkai

Yoko-Shin-Soken, see soken

yokozuna, "horizontal rope", grand champion, mythical, highest rank in ozumo; yokozuna can't lose his rank but if he fails to perform at a high level suitable for yokozuna, he is expected to retire so as not to disgrace the rank; promotion to yokozuna can be achieved by winning two yusho in a row as an ozeki or otherwise performing at nearly the level of equivalent to winning two yusho in a row, in addition to that yokozuna candidate must have dignity, devotion and be in general a character likely to carry the honourable status of yokozuna with pride; yokozuna rank was separated from the rank of ozeki and is still considered a derivative of ozeki (see yokozuna-ozeki); yokozuna rank was officially marked on the banzuke in May 1890 when Nishinoumi I Kajiro demanded it; basically there have been yokozuna before that too although they were referred to as ozeki, see tsuna, hinkaku, dai-yokozuna, meijin-yokozuna

yokozuna keiko, keiko where a yokozuna is present

yokozuna menkyo, right to nominate yokozuna which was granted to Yoshida Oikaze in 1789; on the 14th day of Hatsu Basho 1951 menkyo was transferred from the Yoshida family to kyokai; Yoshida family still possesses a ceremonial status

yokozuna no sumo, appropriate way for yokozuna to wrestle by convincingly vanquishing his aite

yokozuna-no utsuwa, mental characteristics expected from an ozeki who is being promoted to yokozuna; strength of character, dignity, honourability etc.; term is often use in a negative sense to indicate the lack of the demanded features; compare with hinkaku

yokozuna-ozeki, arrangement where it is possible to artificially create the demanded two ozeki even when there is only one ozeki presently on the banzuke; yokozuna is temporarily marked as a sort of a ozeki on banzuke (tozai depending on which side has a vacant ozeki rank), primarily the term is used for referring to nishi sei-yokozuna but in the very rare case that no ozeki presently exist, both sei-yokozuna could be in principle referred to as yokozuna-ozeki, see saiko-ichi, saikokyu

yokozuna-rashii, yokozuna-like, like a true yokozuna

Yokozuna Rikishi-Hi, monument erected in 1627 to Tomioka Hachimangu in Tokyo on which the shikona of yokozuna and murui-rikishi are carved; monument is dedicated to Hachiman, the god of sumo and war

Yokozuna Shingi Iinkai, board consisting of important persons from outside ozumo community; gives a statement concerning yokozuna promotion candidate, see iincho, soken

Yokozuna Shingi Iinkai keiko soken, see soken

Yokozuna Shingikai, see Yokozuna Shingi Iinkai

yokozuna suikyo shiki, ceremony where two oyakata bring the information to ozeki that he has been invited to become a yokozuna

yokozuna-zumo, see yokozuna no sumo

Yono-shi, district of Saitama where Irumagawa-beya is located

yonyaku, very unofficial term used for all the rikishi above maegashira rank, compare with sanyaku

yori, pushing aite back and over tawara usually with a grip on mawashi, see gabburi-yori

yoridashi, failed (?) attempt by losing rikishi to stop his own backward motion by leaning against the tawara

yorikiri, frontal force out, kimarite that is one of sumo's most common winning techniques, the two combatants will have come to grips and the attacker will drive his aite backwards and out of the ring, maintaining a grip on aite's mawashi at all times.

yorimi, rikishi's ability to use yori techniques more successfully than the average

yoritaoshi, frontal crush out, kimarite similar to yorikiri; in this technique the aite is driven backwards and literally collapses under the force of the attack. The attacker here too must maintain some grip on his opponent's mawashi.

yoru, v. to push, see yori

yoru to misete nage o utta, rikishi fooling his aite by seemingly pursuing yorikiri but suddenly changing the attack into a nage; most often uwatenage

yose-daiko, invitation to arrive to watch the torikumi of the day; played with yagura-daiko early in the morning, see fure-daiko, hane-daiko, Sumida

yose-nabe, soup or stew consisting of vegetables, seafood and chicken (or other poultry?)

Yoshida Oikaze, leader of Yoshida clan who had the original right (menkyo) to grant yokozuna status to an ozeki; at those times yokozuna was not a real rikishi rank and it was not marked on the banzuke, see Yoshida Tsukasa-Ke

Yoshida Tsukasa-Ke, family from Kumamoto which had the right to nominate yokozuna (menkyo)

yosho

yosoo, adj. anticipated, guessed, forecasted; for example yosoo banzuke - banzuke guesses made by sports sections of newspapers before the actual banzuke is released

yotsu, see yotsu-zumo

Yotsugamine, heya active in Nanbu around 1850

yotsumi, wrestling style where both rikishi prefer yotsu-zumo; also rikishi's specialization in yotsu-zumo

yotsu ni kumu, see shikinihairu

yotsu-zumo, sumo concentrated on mawashi grips and techniques executed from those positions; very roughly it can be said that usually rikishi with at least reasonably good technical skills and strong arms prefer yotsu-zumo, compare with namakura-yotsu, oshi-zumo, ai-yotsu, kenka-yotsu

yougo, jargon, for example the terminology used in ozumo

yowai, rikishi in poor shape, compare with genki, tsuyoi

yubitori, bending aite's fingers to unnatural positions which leads to kuroboshi due to hansoku

yudanakumiawasete, gyoji's order to rikishi crouched down to shikinihairu that it is time to begin torikumi

yukata, summer kimono

Yukimiyama, heya which is no longer active

yumi, bow used by rikishi performing yumitori-shiki; also the winner of last torikumi on senshuraku gets one, see ya, tsuru, kore yori san-yaku (ni gozari-masuru), yaku-zumo ni kano

yumifuri, see yumitori-shiki

yumitori, rikishi who performs yumitori-shiki at the end of every honbasho day; usually a makushita ranked (sometimes sandanme or even lower) rikishi who is specialized in this; exceptionally yumitori is entitled to wear kesho-mawashi lend to him by kyokai and oh-ichoh-mage which normally are characteristics of sekitori; yumitori is often yokozuna's tsukebito; in the 1990's Futagoyama-beya's Wakakaze acted long as yumitori, now Musashigawa-beya's and yokozuna Musashimaru's tsukebito Shinmei is yumitori

yumitori-shiki, the bow twirling ceremony performed at the end of every tournament day, see yumi, yumitori

yurufun, despised way of tying up mawashi so loosely that aite's grip on it is not as effective as normally, see yurui fundoshi

yurui fundoshi, mawashi tied up loosely, see yurufun, fundoshi

yusho, tournament win of honbasho, see zensho yusho, yusho-gaku, yusho-doten, makuuchi saiko yusho

yusho arasoi, see arasoi

yusho-gaku, about 350 cm tall pictures of yusho winners; hung on the ceiling of Kokugikan; paid by Mainichi Shimbun newspaper and coloured over black and white photos by an elderly lady; after being in Kokugikan for six years they are given to the respective rikishi; prior to every honbasho held at Kokugikan two yusho-gaku depicting latest honbasho winners are revealed

yusho-doten, final record of the winner of honbasho or record of two or more rikishi who participate in kettei-sen or tomoe-sen and hence have better records than other rikishi, see ai-boshi

yusho kettei-sen, see kettei-sen

yusho ni junzuru seiseki, second best final record in a honbasho which entitles to jun-yusho and is usually only one shiroboshi behind yusho-doten

yusho ni karamu, twelve or thirteen shiroboshi (expected from yokozuna) which normally are enough to be in the yusho race

yuusei, superiority, dominance

A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P R S T U W Y Z

zabuton, thin pillows softening masu-seki seats

zabuton ga maita, "the zabuton danced", see zabuton no-gakkai

zabuton no-gakkai, spectators' custom of throwing zabuton onto dohyo after an exciting or surprising (especially in case of kinboshi) torikumi despite opposite requests by representatives of kyokai

zasai, Chinese style pickles

zeki, honourific expression added to the end of sekitori's shikona, see -san, -sama, -chan, -kun, -oyakata

zenhai, see zenpai

zen-han-sen, about ten makuuchi torikumi preceding nakairi, see ko-han-sen

Zenkoku chibikko sumo-jin-kai, children's sumo association

zen-kyu, honbasho which is missed totally due to kyujo, compare with tochu-kyujo, see kosho seido

Zen Nihon Senshuken, Japan's amateur sumo championship competitions, see Nihon Amateur Sumo Remmei

zenpai, winless tournament record (0-15 among the sekitori, 0-7 among the toriteki), compare with zensho (yusho)

zensho (yusho), yusho in honbasho without a single kuroboshi, entitled to extra cash reward at least in makuuchi division, see uchitsukazu, compare with zenpai

zento, Chinese pronounciation form for maegashira, originally refers to sento(?)

zori, sandals made out of rice straws, worn by the tategyoji and sanyaku-kaku, see tabi, geta

zu, head, see atama

zubarizuki

zubuneri, head pivot throw, kimarite in which the attacker will bury his head in the defender's chest and then lock up the defender's inside arm by wrapping his own arm around it. He will then twist that inside arm across his own body. With his head as the throw's fulcrum, this twisting motion will force the defender to spin around and over onto his back.

zukuri, type of roof structure of a shinto temple, see Kiritsuma, Irimoya, Shinmei

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